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  • An accumulated value of heat degrees that the average temperature is above a specified threshold, 10°C for warm season crops. This condition must be maintained for at least 5 consecutive days in order for EGDD to be accumulated (egdd_warm). Week 1 and week 2 forecasted index is available daily from April 1 to October 31. Week 3 and week 4 forecasted index is available weekly (Thursday) from April 1 to October 31. Cumulative heat-energy satisfies the essential requirement of field crop growth and development towards a high yield and good quality of agricultural crop products. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) and Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) have together developed a suite of extreme agrometeorological indices based on four main categories of weather factors: temperature, precipitation, heat, and wind. The extreme weather indices are intended as short-term prediction tools and generated using ECCC’s medium range forecasts to create a weekly index product on a daily and weekly basis.

  • The “Agri-Environmental Indicator (AEI) - Relative Soil Organic Carbon” dataset estimates the level of organic carbon in Canadian agricultural lands relative to a baseline value for census years 1981 to 2011.

  • The “Agri-Environmental Indicator (AEI) – Residual Soil Nitrogen” dataset provides a calculation of the amount of nitrogen (N) in the top 60 cm of soil at the end of the cropping season for Canadian agricultural lands.

  • The “Agri-Environmental Indicator (AEI) - Agriculture Ammonia Emissions” dataset provides estimated amounts of ammonia (NH3) emitted into the atmosphere from agricultural lands by agricultural activities areas for census years from 1981 to 2011.

  • Average date of the first autumn frost (Tmin ≤ 0, -1, -2, -3 or -4 °C) based on the period from 1979 to 2008. This analysis was based on temperature values interpolated at 10 km using the ANUSPLIN method, based on data from the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs du Québec and from Environment Canada. These values give a general indication of the frost risk for a region, but they are not necessarily representative of a specific site. Frost risk varies locally depending on a number of factors, particularly topography and proximity to a body of water. The first autumn frost is associated with the first day on which the minimum daily temperature is less than or equal to lethal temperature. Like the last spring frost, this indicator is associated with various levels of probability linked to risks of crop growth ending or potential damage to crops. It is important to consider the date of the last spring frost when choosing a crop or cultivar for a region.

  • Average end date of the accumulation period of corn heat units (CHU) is based on the period between 1979 and 2008. This analysis was based on temperature values interpolated at 10 km using the ANUSPLIN method, based on data from the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs du Québec and from Environment Canada. CHU are used to predict the arrival of phenological stages of corn, such as maturity, during the growing season. They are also used to describe regional potential for corn production. Furthermore, CHU are used to describe the thermal requirements of various hybrids and cultivars in order to reach maturity.

  • Average accumulated precipitation between April 1 and October 31 is based on the period between 1974 and 2003. This analysis was based on temperature values interpolated at 10 km using the ANUSPLIN method, based on data from the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs du Québec and from Environment Canada. The water inflow provided by precipitation is an index used in a number of production sectors, to manage plot irrigation, evaluation of the agricultural potential of a given region and leaching of pesticides, for example. Accumulated precipitation in the form of rain can be calculated on an annual or monthly basis or over a specific period: for example, from April to October to correspond generally with the growing season. Quantities of rain are thus calculated for a selected territory on a variable time scale. It is important that careful attention be paid to the scale when interpreting the observed weather data. As an example, the accumulation of small quantities of rain on a regular basis over a long period may be equivalent to a higher amount of rain falling during a shorter period, but the impact on the crop is not the same.

  • Average start date of the accumulation period of corn heat units (CHU) is based on the period between 1979 and 2008. This analysis was based on temperature values interpolated at 10 km using the ANUSPLIN method, based on data from the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs du Québec and from Environment Canada. CHU are used to predict the arrival of phenological stages of corn, such as maturity, during the growing season. They are also used to describe regional potential for corn production. Furthermore, CHU are used to describe the thermal requirements of various hybrids and cultivars in order to reach maturity.

  • Average end date of the growing season (Tavg ≥ 5.5 °C) based on the period between 1979 and 2008. This analysis was based on temperature values interpolated at 10 km using the ANUSPLIN method, based on data from the Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs du Québec and from Environment Canada. The length of the growing season is associated with the period when the weather conditions of a region allow for the growth of a crop. For a given region, it corresponds to the period when the average temperature stays above 5.5 °C. Given that this indicator is directly linked to crop growth and development, it is a particularly important tool in planning and managing long-term agricultural production and when making strategic decisions, such as evaluating a region’s agricultural potential.

  • The “Agri-Environmental Indicator (AEI) - Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions (APMEI) – Particulate Matter less than 10 μm (PM 10)” dataset provides estimated net emissions of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 micrometers (including less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5)) from agricultural lands for census years 1981 to 2011.