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Government of Canada; Natural Resources Canada; Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Forest Geomatics

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    14 Class - Canadian Ecological Domain Classification from Satellite Data. Satellite derived data including 1) topography, 2) landscape productivity based on photosynthetic activity, and 3) land cover were used as inputs to create an environmental regionalization of the over 10 million km2 of Canada’s terrestrial land base. The outcomes of this clustering consists of three main outputs. An initial clustering of 100 classes was generated using a two-stage multivariate classification process. Next, an agglomerative hierarchy using a log-likelihood distance measure was applied to create a 40 and then a 14 class regionalization, aimed to meaningfully group ecologically similar components of Canada's terrestrial landscape. For more information (including a graphical illustration of the cluster hierarchy) and to cite this data please use: Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Iwanicka, D. 2009. An environmental domain classification of Canada using earth observation data for biodiversity assessment. Ecological Informatics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pp. 8-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2008.09.005. ( Coops et al. 2009).

  • High-resolution binary wetland map for Canada (2001-2016). Wetland map for the forested ecosystems of Canada focused on current conditions. The binary wetland data included in this product is national in scope (entirety of forested ecosystem) and represents the wall to wall characterization for 2001-2016 (see Wulder et al. 2018). This product was generated using both annual gap free composite reflectance images and annual forest change maps following the Virtual Land Cover Engine (VLCE) process (see Hermosilla et al. 2018), over the 650 million ha forested ecosystems of Canada. Elements of the VLCE classification approach are inclusion of disturbance information in the processes as well as ensuring class transitions over time are logical. Further, a Hidden Markov Model is implemented to assess individual year class likelihoods to reduce variability and possible noise in year-on-year class assignments (for instances when class likelihoods are similar). For this product, to be considered as currently a wetland a pixel must have been classified as wetland at least 80% or 13 of the 16 years between 2001 and 2016, inclusively. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, see Wulder et al. (2018). Wulder, M.A., Z. Li, E. Campbell, J.C. White, G. Hobart, T. Hermosilla, and N.C. Coops (2018). A National Assessment of Wetland Status and Trends for Canada’s Forested Ecosystems Using 33 Years of Earth Observation Satellite Data. Remote Sensing. For a detailed description of the VLCE process and the subsequently generated land cover product, including an accuracy assessment, please see Hermosilla et al. (2018).

  • Forest Basal Area 2015 Cross-sectional area of tree stems at breast height. The sum of the cross-sectional area (i.e. basal area) of each tree in square metres in a plot, divided by the area of the plot (ha) (units = m2ha). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • High resolution forest change for Canada (Change Type) 1985-2011 The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 27 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985–2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 ). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016; http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17538947.2016.1187673). The data available is, 1. a binary change/no-change; 2. Change year; and, 3. Change type. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.035. https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • High resolution forest change for Canada (Binary Change/No-change) 1985-2011 The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 27 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985–2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 ). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016; http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17538947.2016.1187673). The data available is, 1. a binary change/no-change; 2. Change year; and, 3. Change type. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.035. https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • Forest 95th Percentile Elevation(Ht) 2015 95th percentile of first returns height (m). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • Categories  

    100 Class - Canadian Ecological Domain Classification from Satellite Data. Satellite derived data including 1) topography, 2) landscape productivity based on photosynthetic activity, and 3) land cover were used as inputs to create an environmental regionalization of the over 10 million km2 of Canada’s terrestrial land base. The outcomes of this clustering consists of three main outputs. An initial clustering of 100 classes was generated using a two-stage multivariate classification process. Next, an agglomerative hierarchy using a log-likelihood distance measure was applied to create a 40 and then a 14 class regionalization, aimed to meaningfully group ecologically similar components of Canada's terrestrial landscape. For more information (including a graphical illustration of the cluster hierarchy) and to cite this data please use: Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Iwanicka, D. 2009. An environmental domain classification of Canada using earth observation data for biodiversity assessment. Ecological Informatics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pp. 8-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2008.09.005. ( Coops et al. 2009).

  • Forest Elevation(Ht) Mean 2015 Mean height of lidar first returns (m). Represents the mean canopy height. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Wulder et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • Forest Elevation(Ht) Stddev 2015 Standard deviation of height of lidar first returns (m). Represents the variability in canopy heights. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • Categories  

    40 Class - Canadian Ecological Domain Classification from Satellite Data. Satellite derived data including 1) topography, 2) landscape productivity based on photosynthetic activity, and 3) land cover were used as inputs to create an environmental regionalization of the over 10 million km2 of Canada’s terrestrial land base. The outcomes of this clustering consists of three main outputs. An initial clustering of 100 classes was generated using a two-stage multivariate classification process. Next, an agglomerative hierarchy using a log-likelihood distance measure was applied to create a 40 and then a 14 class regionalization, aimed to meaningfully group ecologically similar components of Canada's terrestrial landscape. For more information (including a graphical illustration of the cluster hierarchy) and to cite this data please use: Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Iwanicka, D. 2009. An environmental domain classification of Canada using earth observation data for biodiversity assessment. Ecological Informatics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pp. 8-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2008.09.005. ( Coops et al. 2009).