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  • The compilation represents publicly available reports of geochronological information for Canada. This includes federal, provincial and territorial government publications and reports, university theses, books and journals. Current coverage is limited to those areas that have been the target of recent past compilation efforts, with other areas and updates being included as they become ready. Users should be aware that the compilation may not include all available data for a given area. Every effort is made to report the ages without reinterpreting the original authors' intent. However, care has also been taken to highlight the salient features of the data by which the end-user can make initial judgment on the data robustness. Users are cautioned that because of space limitations and the necessary summarization of often complex datasets, that the original publication should be consulted to verify age interpretations and their rationale. Data may be extracted by the user in tab-delimited text format.

  • CanCoast is a geospatial database of the physical characteristics of Canada's marine coasts. It includes both feature classes that are not expected to change through time, and feature classes that are expected to change as climate changes. CanCoast includes: wave-height change with sea ice (early and late 21st century); sea-level change (early and late century); ground ice content; coastal materials; tidal range; and backshore slope. These are mapped to a common high-resolution shoreline and used to calculate indices that show the coastal sensitivity of Canada's marine coasts in modelled early and late 21st century climates.

  • CanCoast is a geospatial database of the physical characteristics of Canada's marine coasts. It includes both feature classes that are not expected to change through time, and feature classes that are expected to change as climate changes. CanCoast includes: wave-height change with sea ice (early and late 21st century); sea-level change (early and late century); ground ice content; coastal materials; tidal range; and backshore slope. These are mapped to a common high-resolution shoreline and used to calculate indices that show the coastal sensitivity of Canada's marine coasts in modelled early and late 21st century climates.

  • CanCoast is a geospatial database of the physical characteristics of Canada's marine coasts. It includes both feature classes that are not expected to change through time, and feature classes that are expected to change as climate changes. CanCoast includes: wave-height change with sea ice (early and late 21st century); sea-level change (early and late century); ground ice content; coastal materials; tidal range; and backshore slope. These are mapped to a common high-resolution shoreline and used to calculate indices that show the coastal sensitivity of Canada's marine coasts in modelled early and late 21st century climates.

  • The data used in this compilation come from the Canadian Gravity Database (CGDB), which is managed by the Canadian Geodetic Survey (CGS), Surveyor General Branch. CGDB includes more than 755 000 observations, including some 232 000 observations on land. The distribution of the land data represents an average of one gravity point per 40 km². The gravity maps, which are gridded to a 2-km interval with a blanking radius of 20 km, currently include data acquired between 1944 and 2015. CGS and partners continue to supplement the CGDB each year. The surveys are conducted using relative gravimeters that measure the gravity difference between two locations. On the landmass, gravity has been measured primarily using static gravimeters. Although measurements at some offshore locations have been collected using static gravimeters on the ocean floor, most are acquired using dynamic gravimeters aboard moving vessels. The relative nature of the gravimeters require that surveys be tied to base (control) stations with known absolute gravity. The base stations are part of the Canadian Gravity Standardization Network (CGSN), which is tied to the International Gravity Standardization Network 1971 (IGSN71). Today, the traditional base stations are being replaced by new base stations that are measured with an absolute gravimeter having an accuracy of 2µGal (2x10-8 m/s²). All relative gravity measurements are integrated into the IGSN71 datum to create a coherent dataset at the global scale. Normal (theoretical) gravity is calculated using the Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS80; https://doi.org/10.1007%2FS001900050278). Bouguer anomalies, which include reductions of the elevation and topographical mass to sea level, are calculated using a vertical gravity gradient of ~0.3086 mGal/m (change slightly with latitude and elevation) and a crustal density of 2670 kg/m³.

  • The data presented in the radioactivity map of Canada series (Buckle et al., 2014) depict the surface concentrations of three naturally-occurring radioactive elements: potassium (K, %), equivalent uranium (eU, ppm), and equivalent thorium (eTh, ppm); as well as five derived products: natural air absorbed dose rate (NADR, nGy/h) calculated from a linear combination of potassium, equivalent uranium, and equivalent thorium concetrations; the ratios eU/eTh, eU/K, and eTh/K; and the ternary map which uses false colour to illustrate the co-variation of the three measured elements (Broome et al., 1987). This compilation was produced with data from more than 370 airborne gamma-ray surveys flown or supervised by the Geological Survey of Canada between 1969 and 2011. Data was calibrated and acquired in accordance to standards in effect at the time each survey (see Darnley et al., 1975 and IAEA, 1991). Most of the data was acquired using 50 L of Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors flown at a nominal terrain clearance of 120 m, but line spacings vary from 5000 m to 200 m depending on the specific survey. Potassium is measured directly from the 1460 keV gamma-ray photons emitted by Potassium-40. Uranium and thorium, however, are determined indirectly from gamma-ray photons emitted by daughter products Bismuth-214 (1765 keV) and Thallium-208 (2614 keV) respectively assuming equilibrium between daughter and parent isotopes. For this reason, gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium and thorium are referred to as equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). The measured gamma-rays originate from geological materials in the upper 30 cm of the Earth's surface and their intensity are directly related to the concentrations of K, U and Th in the rocks and minerals present. The geochemical information presented in this compilation is used to support bedrock and surficial geology mapping by outlining lithological variations. It can also indicate mineralization either by association of radio-elements as trace elements with economic minerals or through delineation of their enrichment or depletion due to geochemical alteration resulting from mineralization processes. Overall, this information also contributes to the characterization of the natural radiation environment. Futher information on data acquisition, processing and interpretation and on application can be found in IAEA-TECDOC-1363 (2003), and references therein. These data were also published as Geological Survey of Canada maps, in the Open Files series (7396-7403). References Broome, J., J.M. Carson, J.A. Grant, and K.L. Ford, 1987. A modified ternary radioelement mapping technique and its application to the south coast of Newfoundland, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 87-14. https://doi.org/10.4095/122382 Buckle, J.L., J.M. Carson, K.L. Ford, R. Fortin and W.F. Miles, 2014, Radioactivity map of Canada, ternary radioelement map, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7397. https://doi.org/10.4095/293354 Darnley, A.G., E. M. Cameron and K. A. Richardson, 1975. The Federal-Provincial Uranium Reconnaissance Program, in Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 75-26, p. 49-71. https://doi.org/10.4095/102591 International Atomic Energy Agency, 1991. Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer Surveying, International Atomic Energy Agency, Technical Reports Series No. 323. https://www.iaea.org/publications/1427/airborne-gamma-ray-spectrometer-surveying International Atomic Energy Agency, 2003. Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry data; International Atomic Energy Agency, Technical Reports Series No. 1363. https://www.iaea.org/publications/6746/guidelines-for-radioelement-mapping-using-gamma-ray-spectrometry-data

  • The bedrock geologic units designate units of the same types of rock which composed the solid rock exposed at ground surface (as outcrop) or which underlies unconsolidated surficial sediments. This dataset represents a general description of the stratigraphy and geology, including geologic unit thickness, morphology, age and rank. It features a list of the geologic unit names and types of rock (lithology) in the hydrogeological unit, from a controlled vocabulary. While the preferred format to deliver this data is by using a shapefile and its linked attributes, this dataset can be delivered also by providing link to external data which should have at least the same properties or also by joining a georeferenced image of the map.

  • The confinement describes the types of aquifer: confined, unconfined and semi-confined. Confined aquifer is bounded from above and below by impervious formations. Unconfined aquifer has a water table which serves as its upper boundary. Semi-confined aquifer is in between. Aquifer confinement is derived from geology, stratigraphy and hydrogeological unit thickness. The dataset represents the confinement assessment of the local area over the hydrogeological unit, from a controlled vocabulary.

  • In the hydrogeological unit, quantity of water that replenishes groundwater beneath the water table, expressed in mm/yr. Recharge is usually calculated using hydrology balance, integrating information from precipitation, hydrology data, drainage, soil properties, evapotranspiration, etc. The result is a raster dataset in which each cell has a given value for the recharge of the aquifer. It can be calculate using HELP software, developed by the US EPA. The methods used to create the dataset are described in the metadata associated with the dataset. The dataset represent a raster in which each cell has a mean value describing the global annual recharge of the hydrogeological unit.

  • Surficial geologic units are unconsolidated materials overlying bedrock. The dataset represents a general description of the stratigraphy and geology, including geologic unit thickness, morphology, age and rank. It features a list of the geologic unit names and types of sediment in the hydrogeological unit. While the preferred format to deliver this data is by using a shapefile and its linked attributes, this dataset can be delivered also by providing link to external data which should have at least the same properties or also by joining a georeferenced image of the map.