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    Current conditions and forecasts for selected Canadian cities. Raw XML data are used to generate each city page on the Environment Canada web site http://www.weather.gc.ca/.

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    The Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) provides lightning monitoring across most of Canada. The data distributed here represents a spatio-temporal aggregation of the observations of this network available with an accuracy of a few hundred meters. More precisely, every 10 minutes, the reported observations are processed in the following way: The location of observed lightning (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) in the last 10 minutes is extracted. Using a regular horizontal grid of about 2.5km by 2.5km, the number of observed lightning flashes within each grid cell is calculated. These grid data are normalized by the exact area of each cell (in km2) and by the accumulation period (10min) to obtain an observed flash density expressed in km-2 and min-1. A mask is applied to remove data located more than 250km from Canadian land or sea borders.

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    The Regional Deterministic Precipitation Analysis (RDPA) produces a best estimate of the amount of precipitation that occurred over recent past periods of 6 or 24 hours. The estimate integrates data from in situ precipitation gauge measurements, weather radar, satellite imagery and numerical weather prediction models. Geographic coverage is North America (Canada, United States and Mexico). Data is available at horizontal resolution of 10 km. Data is only available for the surface level. Analysis data is made available four times a day for 6h intervals and twice a day for the 24h interval. A preliminary estimate is available approximately 1h after the end of the accumulation period, and revised 7h after in order to assimilate gauge data arriving later.

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    Real-time water level and flow (discharge) data collected at over 2100 hydrometric stations across Canada (last 30 days).

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    A station is a site on a river or lake where water quantity (water level and flow) are collected and recorded.

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    The Coastal Ice-Ocean Predicton System (CIOPS) provides a 48 hour ocean and ice forecast over different domains (East, West, Salish Sea) four times a day at 1/36° resolution. A pseudo-analysis component is forced at the ocean boundaries by the Regional Ice-Ocean Prediction System (RIOPS) forecasts and spectrally nudged to the RIOPS solution in the deep ocean. Fields from the pseudo-analysis are used to initialize the 00Z forecast, whilst the 06, 12 and 18Z forecasts use a restart files saved at hour 6 from the previous forecast. The atmospheric fluxes for both the pseudo-analysis and forecast components are provided by the High Resolution Deterministic Prediction System (HRDPS) blended both spatially and temporally with either the Global Deterministic Prediction System (GDPS) (for CIOPS-East) or the Regional Deterministic Predicton System (RDPS) (for CIOPS-West) for areas not covered by the HRDPS.

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    Climate observations are derived from two sources of data. The first are Daily Climate Stations producing one or two observations per day of temperature, precipitation. The second are hourly stations that typically produce more weather elements e.g. wind or snow on ground.

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    The daily mean is the average of all unit values for a given day.

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    The annual maximum and minimum daily data are the maximum and minimum daily mean values for a given year.

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    The annual maximum and minimum instantaneous data are the maximum and minimum instantaneous values for a given year.