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    This dataset contains the abundance (per m²) and the biomass (mg dry per m²) of macrofauna (≥ 500µm) in eelgrass and adjacent bare soft sediments, collected at sites in the Atlantic of Nova Scotia from 2009 to 2013. Cite this data as: Wong M.C. Data of Benthic invertebrates in seagrass and bare soft sediments in Atlantic Nova Scotia Published May 2020. Coastal Ecosystems Science Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, N.S. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/05d5f46a-7f19-11ea-8a4e-1860247f53e3 Publications: Wong, M. C., & Dowd, M. (2021). Functional trait complementarity and dominance both determine benthic secondary production in temperate seagrass beds. Ecosphere. 12(11), e03794. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3794 Wong, M. C. (2018). Secondary Production of Macrobenthic Communities in Seagrass (Zostera marina, Eelgrass) Beds and Bare Soft Sediments Across Differing Environmental Conditions in Atlantic Canada. Estuaries and Coasts, 41, 536–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-017-0286-2

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    A systematic oceanographic monitoring program was initiated in September 1989 at twenty-five monitoring stations in the Passamaquoddy Bay area and approaches by Dr. Shawn Robinson based out of the St. Andrews Biological Station (SABS). Stations were established in a uniform grid pattern of two arcminutes latitude and longitude over the study area in order to develop a database on the spatial patterns of water properties. Monthly measurements of the water column for the temperatures and salinity at all stations was completed using a Seacat SBE 19 internally recording CTD from Sea-bird Electronics Inc. The CTD was programmed to record conductivity, temperature, and depth at a frequency of 2 hz, corresponding to 2 measurements per meter of water depth. CTD casts were recorded for each of the 25 stations in the study area monthly using the R/V Pandalus, and later the CCGS Viola M. Davidson based out of SABS. The CTD was configured such that the sensors were oriented towards the benthos and the CTD was then attached to a hydraulic winch on the deck of the ship by a stainless steel cable one meter above a weight, and lowered 1 m below the water's surface in order for the CTD to equilibrate for one minute. The CTD was then lowered at 1 m/s to the benthos using a metered block on the winch to determine when the CTD had reached the maximum depth at that station. Once the weight had touched the bottom, the CTD was retrieved from the water, turned off, and placed in a bucket of fresh seawater in order to minimize equilibration time at the next station. Initially, the CTD measured salinity via water forced through the salinity cell with the drop rate of 1 m/s, but in August 1992, a pump was mounted on the CTD in order to provide a more consistent flow of water across the salinity cell. Surface temperatures were measured from bucket samples collected upon arriving at each station using a hand-held mercury thermometer at each station, and Secchi disk measurements were recorded. All data were downloaded from the CTD upon return to SABS using a DFO computer and the proprietary Sea-Soft software. Downcast data from each profile was retained, binned into 1 m intervals, and processed to remove data spikes, density inversions, and anomalies due to inadequate instrument equilibration. Processed data was then stored in the DFO's Oracle database (PTRAN) under the IMTA_SABS schema in the INVHYD and INVINF tables. Station numbers and locations are recorded in the CTD_STATIONS table in the IMTA_SABS schema. Cite this data: Robinson, S. Data of: Passamaquoddy Bay monthly Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) sampling (1989 - 2018). Published: October 2019. Coastal Ecosystems Science Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/12184962-7879-4214-aef0-b31162f04a27

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    Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) Maritime Science Branch has collected grain size data from sediment and water column samples using bottle samples, sediment cores, and sediment grabs as part of numerous research projects not only in the Atlantic provinces, but also worldwide. The data collected by DFO focuses on the fine grained (<1mm) particles as these are both a source of food and means of contaminant transport. Grain size data are used to study the fate and distribution of complimentary chemistries like heavy metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons, aquaculture waste as well as a variety of physical processes such as the resuspension and transport of sediment.

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    The Coastal Environmental Baseline Program is a multi-year Fisheries and Oceans Canada initiative designed to work with Indigenous and local communities and other key parties to collect coastal environmental data at six pilot sites across Canada (Port of Vancouver, Port of Prince Rupert, Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Port of Saint John, Placentia Bay, and Iqaluit). The goal of the Program is to gather local information in these areas in effort to build a better understanding of marine ecological conditions. The Maritimes region has developed a habitat classification program to align with the oceanographic interests and data needs of local communities and stakeholders, with the goal of sharing this information via open data. In 2020, a habitat survey in the lower Musquash Marine Protected Area (MPA) was undertaken to further develop this project, using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) equipped with high-frequency (450 kHz) side scan sonar to build a habitat map of the MPA. This dataset includes mosaicked series of sonar images (raw & position-corrected versions), covering roughly 6 km2 of marine and intertidal areas in the Musquash MPA. Doppler Velocity logs and mission-specific files for each survey are also included, along with detailed methodological documentation. These data were generated from 17 separate survey missions that were completed in August, September and October 2020.

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    The Coastal Environmental Baseline Program is a multi-year Fisheries and Oceans Canada initiative designed to work with Indigenous and local communities and other key parties to collect coastal environmental data at six pilot sites across Canada (Port of Vancouver, Port of Prince Rupert, Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Port of Saint John, Placentia Bay, and Iqaluit). The goal of the Program is to gather local information in these areas in effort to build a better understanding of marine ecological conditions. The Maritimes region has developed a physical oceanography program to align with the oceanographic interests and data needs of local communities and stakeholders, with the goal of sharing this information via open data. Starting in 2019, oceanographic parameters including temperature, salinity, depth, turbidity and currents have been continuously monitored at a series of locations covering a broad range of environments in the Port of Saint John and approaches vicinity, including the lower Saint John and Kennebecasis rivers, coastal fringe marshes and embayments, as well as the Musquash estuary Marine Protected Area (MPA). This dataset includes CTD data starting in 2019 and turbidity data from August 2020. Data collection methods range from bottom-mounted instruments in water depths of 10-50 meters, buoyant surface moorings, and hard-mounted instruments in intertidal zones. Intertidal data is interrupted during some low tide events, where the water level drops below the sensor, resulting in loss of functionality for periods up to 1-2 hours. Overall this dataset captures a dynamic balance between salt and fresh water on the highly tidal lower Saint John river, coastal seasonal dynamics in near-shore marine environments in the Musquash MPA, and the constant fluctuations of intertidal creeks and marshes. Updated Nov 2023: included 2022 data; removed daylight savings errors from 2019, 2020 and 2021; updated position for Evandale surface mooring.

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    Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s (DFO) National Biofouling Monitoring Program (BMP) has conducted annual field surveys to monitor the introduction, establishment, spread, species richness, and relative abundance of native and non-indigenous species (NIS) since 2006. Standardized monitoring protocols employed by DFO-Maritimes, -Gulf, and -Quebec Regions include biofouling collector plates deployed from May to October at intertidal and shallow subtidal, geo-referenced sites, including public and private docks, aquaculture lease sites, public and private marinas and yacht clubs. Initially in the Maritimes Region (2006-2017) collectors consisted of 3, 10 cm by 10cm PVC plates deployed in a vertical array and spaced approximately 40-cm apart with the shallowest plate hung at least 1 m below the surface to sample shallow subtidal and intertidal species (Sephton et al. 2011, 2017). Two replicate arrays were deployed at least 5 m apart per site. Since 2018, collector arrays were modified to enhance statistical replication, including 10 individual collectors deployed per site at 1 m depth and at least 5 m apart (as above) from May to October. The percent cover of AIS on all collectors was determined by visual examination and scored as follows; (i) ‘0’ = absent, (ii) ‘1’ = ≤25 % cover, (iii) ‘2’ = 25 to ≤50 %, (iv) ‘3’ = 50–75% , and (v) ‘4’ = >75%. Average percent cover is provided for all NIS observed annually per site. Presence-absence indicates that an NIS was observed on at least one collector plate. One additional rocky intertidal species (Asian shore crab; Hemigrapsus sanguineus) was assessed via beach surveys as permitted by time and resources following its initial siting in St Mary’s Bay (Nova Scotia) in April 2020. Rapid assessment surveys conducted in the Fall of 2020 and 2021 were employed to delineate H. sanguineus’ distribution and relative abundance. Areas deemed suitable and at high risk for spread were targeted, including exposed rocky intertidal habitat in southwest regions of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Each rapid assessment consisted of 30-minute beach surveys per site conducted by 2 or 3 people (modified from Stephenson et al. 2011). During each survey, crabs were collected under rocks and seaweed in preferred cobble/boulder habitat (Lohrer et al. 2000). Count data was standardized for each site as the number of crabs collected per 30-min search per person. Cite as: DFO-Maritimes Biofouling Monitoring Program. Published October 2018, Updated December 2023. Coastal Ecosystems Science Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS Citations: Sephton D, B Vercaemer, JM Nicolas, J Keays (2011) Monitoring for invasive tunicates in Nova Scotia, Canada (2006-2009) Aquatic Invasions 6: 391-403. Sephton D, B Vercaemer, A Silva, L Stiles, M Harris, K Godin (2017) Biofouling monitoring for aquatic invasive species (AIS) in DFO Maritimes Regions (Atlantic shore of Nova Scotia and southwest New Brunswick): May-November, 2012-2015. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3158: 72 pp. Stephenson EH, RS Steneck, RH Seeley (2009) Possible temperature limits to range expansion of non-native Asian shore crabs in Maine. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 375: 21–31. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2009.04.020

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    Funded through DFO's Strategic Program for Ecosystem-based Research and Advice (SPERA), this benthic survey covers several seabed areas adjacent to Deer Island and Campobello Island, the Wolves Islands, and Grand Manan (NB) over a two-year study period (2016-2017). One hundred and fifty drift camera transects were completed within the ~91 sq-km study region collecting continuous high-definition video with periodic 4K resolution video (provided by a downward facing Blackmagic Production Camera 4K equipped with video lights). A Nikon D800 36.1 megapixel digital still imagery camera (equipped with a studio strobe light) captured seafloor images at ~30s intervals over a maximum 25-minute drift survey period. The camera was triggered by lowering the camera frame within 1 m of the seabed, releasing tension on a trigger weight suspended below the frame. Camera location was tracked using an ultra-short baseline acoustic positioning system (Tracklink 1500HA transceiver with 1505B transponder on the camera frame). Species presence/absence, abundance, and bottom type was recorded manually using PhotoQuad v1.4 software. An average field of view of 0.7 x 0.5 m was determined from a subset of digital still images within which the 10 cm diameter trigger weight was fully in view. Thirty-eight key and common species were described using explicit taxonomic identifiers, while other species were recorded within broader general categories (e.g. unidentified Cnidaria). Identification was made to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Primary bottom-type was defined as the grain size with the most percent coverage for each image/video interval. Grain size limits were determined using the Wentworth scale. Cite this data as: Lawton P. Benthic Species Presence/Absence in the Lower Bay of Fundy Derived From High Resolution Video and Still Imagery. Published May 2022. Coastal Ecosystems Science Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, N.S.