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    The Agri-Environmental Indicator (AEI) dataset series provides information that was created using indicators that assess the environmental impact of agricultural activities. These agri-environmental indicators integrate information on soils, climate and land surface features with statistics on land use and crop and livestock management practices. The datasets provide valuable, location-specific information on the overall environmental risks and conditions in agriculture across Canada and how these change over time. This dataset series collects AEI data that is related to geographic features and can be represented on a map. Other types of AEI data are not included. The datasets can be organized into the following major groups: farm land management, soil health, water quality, air quality, and food and beverage industry (not included). Farm land management datasets: soil cover, wildlife habitat, and farm land management (not included). Soil health datasets: soil erosion, soil organic matter, trace elements, and soil salinity. Water quality datasets: nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms, and pesticides. Air quality datasets: greenhouse gases, ammonia, particulate matter. For more information, visit: http://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/e996d9be-6a3b-4059-9afc-17dc68385f05

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    The Agri-Environmental Indicator (AEI) dataset series provides information that was created using indicators that assess the environmental impact of agricultural activities. These agri-environmental indicators integrate information on soils, climate and land surface features with statistics on land use and crop and livestock management practices. The datasets provide valuable, location-specific information on the overall environmental risks and conditions in agriculture across Canada and how these change over time. This dataset series collects AEI data that is related to geographic features and can be represented on a map. Other types of AEI data are not included. The datasets can be organized into the following major groups: farm land management, soil health, water quality, air quality, and food and beverage industry (not included). Farm land management datasets: soil cover, wildlife habitat, and farm land management (not included). Soil health datasets: soil erosion, soil organic matter, trace elements, and soil salinity. Water quality datasets: nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms, and pesticides. Air quality datasets: greenhouse gases, ammonia, particulate matter. For more information, visit: http://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/e996d9be-6a3b-4059-9afc-17dc68385f05

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    Environment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) Climate Research Division (CRD) and the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) previously produced statistically downscaled climate scenarios based on simulations from climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in 2015. ECCC and PCIC have now updated the CMIP5-based downscaled scenarios with two new sets of downscaled scenarios based on the next generation of climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6). The scenarios are named Canadian Downscaled Climate Scenarios–Univariate method from CMIP6 (CanDCS-U6) and Canadian Downscaled Climate Scenarios–Multivariate method from CMIP6 (CanDCS-M6). CMIP6 climate projections are based on both updated global climate models and new emissions scenarios called “Shared Socioeconomic Pathways” (SSPs). Statistically downscaled datasets have been produced from 26 CMIP6 global climate models (GCMs) under three different emission scenarios (i.e., SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5). The CanDCS-U6 was downscaled using the Bias Correction/Constructed Analogues with Quantile mapping version 2 (BCCAQv2) procedure, and the CanDCS-M6 was downscaled using the N-dimensional Multivariate Bias Correction (MBCn) method. The CanDCS-U6 dataset was produced using the same downscaling target data (NRCANmet) as the CMIP5-based downscaled scenarios, while the CanDCS-M6 dataset implements a new target dataset (ANUSPLIN and PNWNAmet blended dataset). Statistically downscaled individual model output are available for download. Downscaled climate indices are available across Canada at 10km grid spatial resolution for the 1950-2014 historical period and for the 2015-2100 period following each of the three emission scenarios. Note: projected future changes by statistically downscaled products are not necessarily more credible than those by the underlying climate model outputs. In many cases, especially for absolute threshold-based indices, projections based on downscaled data have a smaller spread because of the removal of model biases. However, this is not the case for all indices. Downscaling from GCM resolution to the fine resolution needed for impacts assessment increases the level of spatial detail and temporal variability to better match observations. Since these adjustments are GCM dependent, the resulting indices could have a wider spread when computed from downscaled data as compared to those directly computed from GCM output. In the latter case, it is not the downscaling procedure that makes future projection more uncertain; rather, it is indicative of higher variability associated with finer spatial scale. Individual model datasets and all related derived products are subject to the terms of use (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/CMIP6/TermsOfUse/TermsOfUse6-1.html) of the source organization.

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    Environment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) CMIP6 statistically downscaled agroclimatic indices are an updated version of the CMIP5 agroclimatic indices dataset making use of the new set of downscaled scenarios (Canadian Downscaled Climate Scenarios–Univariate method from CMIP6 (CanDCS-U6)) created by the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC). To address the needs of different user groups in Canada, 49 indices, including agroclimatic indices, were proposed by the Canadian adaptation community through a series of consultations. Please see the definition list for the equations of each index. The range of impact-relevant climate indices available for download includes, indices representing counts of the number of days when temperature or precipitation exceeds (or is below) a threshold value; the episode length when a particular weather/climate condition occurs; and indices that accumulate temperature departures above or below a fixed threshold. The statistically downscaled climate indices are available for historical simulations (1951-2014) and three new emissions scenarios called “Shared Socioeconomic Pathways” (SSPs), SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 (2015-2100), at a 10 x 10 km degree grid resolution. Note: projected future changes by statistically downscaled products are not necessarily more credible than those by the underlying climate model outputs. In many cases, especially for absolute threshold-based indices, projections based on downscaled data have a smaller spread because of the removal of model biases. However, this is not the case for all indices. Downscaling from GCM resolution to the fine resolution needed for impact assessment increases the level of spatial detail and temporal variability to better match observations. Since these adjustments are GCM dependent, the resulting indices could have a wider spread when computed from downscaled data as compared to those directly computed from GCM output. In the latter case, it is not the downscaling procedure that makes future projection more uncertain; rather, it is indicative of higher variability associated with a finer spatial scale. Individual model datasets and all related derived products are subject to the terms of use (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/CMIP6/TermsOfUse/TermsOfUse6-1.html) of the source organization.

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    Environment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) Climate Research Division (CRD) and the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) previously produced statistically downscaled climate scenarios based on simulations from climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in 2015. ECCC and PCIC have now updated the CMIP5-based downscaled scenarios with two new sets of downscaled scenarios based on the next generation of climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6). The scenarios are named Canadian Downscaled Climate Scenarios–Univariate method from CMIP6 (CanDCS-U6) and Canadian Downscaled Climate Scenarios–Multivariate method from CMIP6 (CanDCS-M6). CMIP6 climate projections are based on both updated global climate models and new emissions scenarios called “Shared Socioeconomic Pathways” (SSPs). Statistically downscaled datasets have been produced from 26 CMIP6 global climate models (GCMs) under three different emission scenarios (i.e., SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5). The CanDCS-U6 was downscaled using the Bias Correction/Constructed Analogues with Quantile mapping version 2 (BCCAQv2) procedure, and the CanDCS-M6 was downscaled using the N-dimensional Multivariate Bias Correction (MBCn) method. The CanDCS-U6 dataset was produced using the same downscaling target data (NRCANmet) as the CMIP5-based downscaled scenarios, while the CanDCS-M6 dataset implements a new target dataset (ANUSPLIN and PNWNAmet blended dataset). Statistically downscaled individual model output are available for download. Downscaled climate indices are available across Canada at 10km grid spatial resolution for the 1950-2014 historical period and for the 2015-2100 period following each of the three emission scenarios. A total of 31 climate indices have been calculated using the CanDCS-U6 and CanDCS-M6 datasets. The climate indices include 27 Climdex indices established by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and 4 additional indices that are slightly modified from the Climdex indices. These indices are calculated from daily precipitation and temperature values from the downscaled simulations and are available at annual or monthly temporal resolution, depending on the indices. Note: projected future changes by statistically downscaled products are not necessarily more credible than those by the underlying climate model outputs. In many cases, especially for absolute threshold-based indices, projections based on downscaled data have a smaller spread because of the removal of model biases. However, this is not the case for all indices. Downscaling from GCM resolution to the fine resolution needed for impacts assessment increases the level of spatial detail and temporal variability to better match observations. Since these adjustments are GCM dependent, the resulting indices could have a wider spread when computed from downscaled data as compared to those directly computed from GCM output. In the latter case, it is not the downscaling procedure that makes future projection more uncertain; rather, it is indicative of higher variability associated with finer spatial scale. Individual model datasets and all related derived products are subject to the terms of use (https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/CMIP6/TermsOfUse/TermsOfUse6-1.html) of the source organization.

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    Multi-model ensembles for a suite of ocean variables based on projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) global climate models (GCMs) are available for 1900-2100 on a common 1x1 degree global grid. All ocean variables currently available contain data for the top level (sea surface) of the ocean. Climate projections vary across GCMs due to differences in the representation and approximation of earth systems and processes, and natural variability and uncertainty regarding future climate drivers. Thus, there is no single best climate model. Rather, using results from an ensemble of models (e.g., taking the average) is best practice, as an ensemble takes model uncertainty into account and provides more reliable climate projections. Provided on CCDS are multi-model ensembles as well as individual model simulations. Multi-model output is available for historical simulations and six Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) (SSP1-1.9, SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, SSP4-6.0, and SSP5-8.5), four future periods (near-term (2021-2040), mid-term (2041-2060 and 2061-2080), end of century (2081-2100), and up to eight percentiles (maximum, minimum, mean, 5th, 25th, 50th (median), 75th, and 95th) of the CMIP6 ensemble distribution. Datasets are available as both actual and anomaly values. Anomalies of projected changes are expressed with respect to a historical reference period of 1995-2014. The number of models in each ensemble differs according to model availability for each SSP and variable, see the model list resource for details on the models included in each ensemble. For more information on the CMIP6 multi-model ocean datasets, see the technical documentation resource.