Keyword

Climate

200 record(s)
 
Type of resources
Available actions
Categories
Topics
Keywords
Contact for the resource
Provided by
Years
Formats
Representation types
Update frequencies
status
Service types
From 1 - 10 / 200
  • Categories  

    Drought is a deficiency in precipitation over an extended period, usually a season or more, resulting in a water shortage that has adverse impacts on vegetation, animals and/or people. The Climate Moisture Index (CMI) was calculated as the difference between annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) – the potential loss of water vapour from a landscape covered by vegetation. Positive CMI values indicate wet or moist conditions and show that precipitation is sufficient to sustain a closed-canopy forest. Negative CMI values indicate dry conditions that, at best, can support discontinuous parkland-type forests. The CMI is well suited to evaluating moisture conditions in dry regions such as the Prairie Provinces and has been used for other ecological studies. Mean annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) was estimated for 30-year periods using the modified Penman-Monteith formulation of Hogg (1997), based on monthly 10-km gridded temperature data. Data shown on maps are 30-year averages. Historical values of CMI (1981-2010) were created by averaging annual CMI calculated from interpolated monthly temperature and precipitation data produced from climate station records. Future values of CMI were projected from downscaled monthly values of temperature and precipitation simulated using the Canadian Earth System Model version 2 (CanESM2) for two different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). RCPs are different greenhouse gas concentration trajectories adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for its fifth Assessment Report. RCP 2.6 (referred to as rapid emissions reductions) assumes that greenhouse gas concentrations peak between 2010-2020, with emissions declining thereafter. In the RCP 8.5 scenario (referred to as continued emissions increases) greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise throughout the 21st century. Multiple layers are provided. First, the mean annual Climate Moisture Index is shown across Canada for a reference period (1981-2010). Projected mean annual Climate Moisture Index is available for the short- (2011-2040), medium- (2041-2070), and long-term (2071-2100) under the RCP 8.5 (continued emissions increases) and, for the long-term (2071-2100), under RCP 2.6 (rapid emissions reductions). Reference: Hogg, E.H. 1997. Temporal scaling of moisture and the forest-grassland boundary in western Canada. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 84,115–122.

  • Categories  

    The "Canada's First Fall Frost Normals (1981-2010)" dataset contains the Mean and Median First Fall Frost Julian day calculated from the ANUSPLIN gridded data set using the date range from January 1, 1981 - December 31, 2010. The dataset also includes the Mean and Median Frost Free Period (given as a count of calendar days). For the purposes of this dataset a Frost Free day is defined as a day where the minimum daily temperature is greater than 0.0 Celsius.For more information, visit: http://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/c293739c-4e16-4384-bff8-e3fdaddc5e5f

  • Categories  

    The "Canada's First Fall Frost Normals (1981-2010)" dataset contains the Mean and Median First Fall Frost Julian day calculated from the ANUSPLIN gridded data set using the date range from January 1, 1981 - December 31, 2010. The dataset also includes the Mean and Median Frost Free Period (given as a count of calendar days). For the purposes of this dataset a Frost Free day is defined as a day where the minimum daily temperature is greater than 0.0 Celsius.For more information, visit: http://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/c293739c-4e16-4384-bff8-e3fdaddc5e5f

  • Categories  

    The Drought Impact Label dataset is used on all drought polygons from D1 to D4 to specify the longitude and magnitude of impacts. Impact labels are often used in association with the Drought Impact Line dataset. The impact labels are classified as follows: S – Short-Term, typically less than 6 months. L – Long-Term, typically more than 6 months. SL – A combination of Short and Long-Term impacts.

  • Categories  

    The Drought Impact Lines dataset highlights areas that have been physically impacted by drought. All drought impact lines have a drought impact label inside of them to express the longevity of the impact. The impact lines are classified using impact labels as follows: S – Short-Term, typically less than 6 months. L – Long-Term, typically more than 6 months. SL – A combination of Short and Long-Term impacts.

  • Categories  

    This series of datasets has been created by AAFC’s National Agroclimate Information Service (NAIS) of the Agro-Climate, Geomatics and Earth Observations (ACGEO) Division of the Science and Technology Branch. The Canadian Drought Monitor (CDM) is a composite product developed from a wide assortment of information such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), streamflow values, Palmer Drought Index, and drought indicators used by the agriculture, forest and water management sectors. Drought prone regions are analyzed based on precipitation, temperature, drought model index maps, and climate data and are interpreted by federal, provincial and academic scientists. Once a consensus is reached, a monthly map showing drought designations for Canada is digitized. AAFC’s National Agroclimate Information Service (NAIS) updates this dataset on a monthly basis, usually by the 10th of every month to correspond to the end of the previous month, and subsequent Canadian input into the larger North American Drought Monitor (NA-DM). The drought areas are classified as follows: D0 (Abnormally Dry) – represents an event that occurs once every 3-5 years; D1 (Moderate Drought) – represents an event that occurs every 5-10 years; D2 (Severe Drought) – represents an event that occurs every 10-20 years; D3 (Extreme Drought) – represents an event that occurs every 20-25 years; and D4 (Exceptional Drought) – represents an event that occurs every 50 years. Impact lines highlight areas that have been physically impacted by drought. Impact labels specify the longitude and magnitude of impacts. The impact labels are classified as follows: S – Short-Term, typically less than 6 months (e.g. agriculture, grasslands). L – Long-Term, typically more than 6 months (e.g. hydrology, ecology).

  • Categories  

    Description: Seasonal mean primary production from the British Columbia continental margin model (BCCM) were averaged over the 1981 to 2010 period and depth-integrated to create seasonal mean climatology of the Canadian Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone. Methods: Total primary production is the sum of diatoms and flagellates production. Spring months were defined as April to June, summer months were defined as July to September, fall months were defined as October to December, and winter months were defined as January to March. The data available here contain a raster layer of seasonal depth-integrated primary production climatology for the Canadian Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone at 3 km spatial resolution. Uncertainties: Model results have been extensively evaluated against observations (e.g. altimetry, CTD and nutrient profiles, observed geostrophic currents), which showed the model can reproduce with reasonable accuracy the main oceanographic features of the region including salient features of the seasonal cycle and the vertical and cross-shore gradient of water properties. However, the model resolution is too coarse to allow for an adequate representation of inlets, nearshore areas, and the Strait of Georgia.

  • Categories  

    Each pixel value corresponds to the day-of-week (1-7) from which the Weekly Best-Quality NDVI retrieval is obtained (1 = Monday, 7 = Sunday).

  • Categories  

    Description: Seasonal mean nitrate concentration from the British Columbia continental margin model (BCCM) were averaged over the 1981 to 2010 period to create seasonal mean climatology of the Canadian Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone. Methods: Nitrate concentrations at up to forty-six linearly interpolated vertical levels from surface to 2400 m and at the sea bottom are included. Spring months were defined as April to June, summer months were defined as July to September, fall months were defined as October to December, and winter months were defined as January to March. The data available here contain raster layers of seasonal nitrate concentration climatology for the Canadian Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone at 3 km spatial resolution and 47 vertical levels. Uncertainties: Model results have been extensively evaluated against observations (e.g. altimetry, CTD and nutrient profiles, observed geostrophic currents), which showed the model can reproduce with reasonable accuracy the main oceanographic features of the region including salient features of the seasonal cycle and the vertical and cross-shore gradient of water properties. However, the model resolution is too coarse to allow for an adequate representation of inlets, nearshore areas, and the Strait of Georgia.

  • Categories  

    MODIS-Aqua Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) was acquired from the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group where Chl-a concentration was calculated using the OC3/OCI method. The months of January and December were excluded from these datasets, as data in the winter months at higher latitudes are missing due to low sun angle preventing acquisition. The monthly geometric mean value at all pixels was calculated for individual years, then the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation factor of chlorophyll-a were calculated by month from these images. These methods of calculating mean and standard deviation were used due to the log-normal distribution of chlorophyll-a. The geometric standard deviation is a unitless factor, where the lower bound is the ratio of the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation, and the upper bound is the multiplication of the two. In addition to the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation factor the number of occurrences of valid data at each pixel over the period of observation were calculated. Pixels with fewer than two occurrences over the entire period of observation were removed from these maps and set to a NaN value in the tif files. All resulting rasters were cropped to the Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, assigned to the NAD83 geographic coordinate reference system (EPSG:4269), and have final pixel resolutions of approximately 0.01 degrees and 0.0417 degrees. The monthly geometric mean, monthly geometric standard deviation factor, and number of occurrences for all pixels are provided.