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    This data publication contains a set of files in which different variables related to fire burned severity (Canada Landsat Burned Severity, CanLaBS) were computed for all events in Canada between 1985 and 2015 as detected by the Canada Landsat Disturbance (CanLaD (Guindon et al. 2017 and 2018) product. Details on the creation of this product are available in Guindon et al. 2020 (https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2020-0353) and in supplementary materials accompanying the publication. The current document is therefore a complement to the article and supplementary materials. The supplementary materials are referenced in the publication (cjfr-2020-0353suppla, cjfr-2020-0353supplb etc.). This is the first Canada-wide product that aims to promote nationwide research on fire severity by making available the data used in the article. The data is in the form of grids composed of pixels at a resolution of 30m. To simplify the distribution and manipulation of the data and considering that two or three fire occurrences within a given location is rare (respectively 2.3% and less than 0.01%), only the most recent fire data are considered in the final product. For these very rare cases, from 2015 to 1985, the most recent burned areas overlap the older data. Overlapping fire count can be found in layer “CanLaBS_Nbdisturb_v0”, multiple fire events in same areas have values equal to or greater than two. Landsat radiometric values for calculating the NBR index were derived from summer Landsat mosaics (July and August), for years 1984 to 2015 (Guindon et al. 2018). These mosaics were developed from individual USGS Landsat scenes with surface reflectance correction (Masek et al., 2006; Vermote et al., 2006). For each annual compound, the pixel with the less atmospheric opacity was selected. An algorithm was also developed to remove clouds that were not detected by the cloud masks provided with the USGS data. Here is a general description of the layers provided and a more technical description can be found in Table 1 (see "Ressources" section below): 1. NBR and dNBR. All these values are multiplied by 1000. The value of dNBR represents the value obtained for NBRpre - NBRpost. It is calculated for each pixel that was classified as a fire in CanLaD, according to the corrected year (see cjfr-2020-0353suppla). 2. Year of fire. The fire years detected in CanLaD (Guindon et al. 2018) was corrected using different fire databases, this layer contains the correct year. (see cjfr-2020-0353suppla) 3. Julian Days of the Fire, based on various high-resolution products. However, this variable is only available from 1989 onwards. 4. Presence of salvage logging one year after the fire. Classification of satellite images detecting scarified soils (see cjfr-2020-0353suppld). 5. Pre-fire forest attributes: Pre-fire forest attributes values were calculated for median mosaics, from 1985 to 2000. These attributes values were derived from NFI (national forest inventory) photo-plot attributes and were spatialized. Pre-fire attribute values were created to stratify the analyses (see cjfr-2020-0353supplc). The predicted variables are as follows: • Canopy density in percent. • Predicted living biomass in tonnes per hectare. • Percentage coniferous biomass proportion of total biomass. • Percentage hardwood biomass proportion of total biomass. • Percentage unknown species biomass proportion of total biomass. Note, as unknown species are found especially in northern areas, they are considered coniferous for the purpose of the article. 6. Missing remote sensing data, one year after the fire. The estimation of burned severity needs NBR data (NBRpost) in the next year after fire occurrences. NBRpost is available for 91% of the cases, but for the remaining 9%, no data were available due to the presence of clouds. For these cases, satellite data from the years following the fire were used with a regression radiometry correction. This gives values to missing data for year following the fire. This layer flags the areas that have derived data. The values of 1= one year after the fire (no regression), 2= two years after the fire (regression), 3= three years after the fire (regression) and 4= four years after the fire (no regression, set as missing data). (see cjfr-2020-0353supplb). 7. Areas with more than one fire disturbance between 1985 and 2015 (1=one single disturbance, 2=two or more, 3=three or more). ## Data citation: 1. Guindon, L., Villemaire P., Manka F., Dorion H. , Skakun R., St-Amant R., Gauthier S. : Canada Landsat Burned Severity (CanLaBS): a Canada-wide Landsat-based 30-m resolution product of burned severity since 1985 https://doi.org/10.23687/b1f61b7e-4ba6-4244-bc79-c1174f2f92cd 2. The creation, the validation and the limits of the CanLaBS product are describe in the text and supplementary material: Guindon, L., Gauthier, S., Manka, F., Parisien, MA, Whitman, E., Bernier, P., Beaudoin, A., Villemaire P., Skakun R. Trends in wildfire burn severity across Canada, 1985 to 2015 https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2020-0353 ## References cited: 1. Guindon, L., Villemaire, P., St-Amant, R., Bernier, P.Y., Beaudoin, A., Caron, F., Bonucelli, M., and Dorion, H. 2017. Canada Landsat Disturbance (CanLaD): a Canada-wide Landsat-based 30m resolution product of fire and harvest detection and attribution since 1984. https://doi.org/10.23687/add1346b-f632-4eb9-a83d-a662b38655ad 2. Guindon, L., Bernier, P., Gauthier, S., Stinson, G., Villemaire, P., & Beaudoin, A. (2018). Missing forest cover gains in boreal forests explained. Ecosphere, 9(1), e02094. https://doi.org//10.1002/ecs2.2094 3. Masek, J.G., Vermote, E.F., Saleous N.E., Wolfe, R., Hall, F.G., Huemmrich, K.F., Gao, F., Kutler, J., and Lim, T-K. (2006). A Landsat surface reflectance dataset for North America, 1990–2000. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 3(1):68-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2005.857030. 4. Vermote, E., Justice, C., Claverie, M., & Franch, B. (2016). Preliminary analysis of the performance of the Landsat 8/OLI land surface reflectance product. Remote Sensing of Environment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.008.

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    Beskriver data om vägtrummor för statliga vägar. Trummors läge utgörs av koordinater för trummans inlopp. Attribut beskriver bl.a. dimension, material och typ för inlopp resp utlopp. Datainsamling pågår och förväntas vara heltäckande till 2025.

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    This data publication contains a set of 30m resolution raster files representing 2020 Canadian wall-to-wall maps of broad land cover type, forest canopy height, degree of crown closure and aboveground tree biomass, along with species composition of several major tree species. The Spatialized CAnadian National Forest Inventory data product (SCANFI) was developed using the newly updated National Forest Inventory photo-plot dataset, which consists of a regular sample grid of photo-interpreted high-resolution imagery covering all of Canada’s non-arctic landmass. SCANFI was produced using temporally harmonized summer and winter Landsat spectral imagery along with hundreds of tile-level regional models based on a novel k-nearest neighbours and random forest imputation method. A full description of all methods and validation analyses can be found in Guindon et al. (2024). As the Arctic ecozones are outside NFI’s covered areas, the vegetation attributes in these regions were predicted using a single random forest model. The vegetation attributes in these arctic areas could not be rigorously validated. The raster file « SCANFI_aux_arcticExtrapolationArea.tif » identifies these zones. SCANFI is not meant to replace nor ignore provincial inventories which could include better and more regularly updated inputs, training data and local knowledge. Instead, SCANFI was developed to provide a current, spatially-explicit estimate of forest attributes, using a consistent data source and methodology across all provincial boundaries and territories. SCANFI is the first coherent 30m Canadian wall-to-wall map of tree structure and species composition and opens novel opportunities for a plethora of studies in a number of areas, such as forest economics, fire science and ecology. # Limitations 1- The spectral disturbances of some areas disturbed by pests are not comprehensively represented in the training set, thus making it impossible to predict all defoliation cases. One such area, severely impacted by the recent eastern spruce budworm outbreak, is located on the North Shore of the St-Lawrence River. These forests are misrepresented in our training data, there is therefore an imprecision in our estimates. 2- Attributes of open stand classes, namely shrub, herbs, rock and bryoid, are more difficult to estimate through the photointerpretation of aerial images. Therefore, these estimates could be less reliable than the forest attribute estimates. 3- As reported in the manuscript, the uncertainty of tree species cover predictions is relatively high. This is particularly true for less abundant tree species, such as ponderosa pine and tamarack. The tree species layers are therefore suitable for regional and coarser scale studies. Also, the broadleaf proportion are slightly underestimated in this product version. 4- Our validation indicates that the areas in Yukon exhibit a notably lower R2 value. Consequently, estimates within these regions are less dependable. 5- Urban areas and roads are classified as rock, according to the 2020 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada land-use classification map. Even though those areas contain mostly buildings and infrastructure, they may also contain trees. Forested urban parks are usually classified as forested areas. Vegetation attributes are also predicted for forested areas in agricultural regions. Updates of this dataset will eventually be available on this metadata page. # Details on the product development and validation can be found in the following publication: Guindon, L., Manka, F., Correia, D.L.P., Villemaire, P., Smiley, B., Bernier, P., Gauthier, S., Beaudoin, A., Boucher, J., and Boulanger, Y. 2024. A new approach for Spatializing the Canadian National Forest Inventory (SCANFI) using Landsat dense time series. Can. J. For. Res. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2023-0118 # Please cite this dataset as: Guindon L., Villemaire P., Correia D.L.P., Manka F., Lacarte S., Smiley B. 2023. SCANFI: Spatialized CAnadian National Forest Inventory data product. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Quebec, Canada. https://doi.org/10.23687/18e6a919-53fd-41ce-b4e2-44a9707c52dc # The following raster layers are available: • NFI land cover class values: Land cover classes include Water, Rock, Bryoid, Herbs, Shrub, Treed broadleaf, Treed mixed and Treed conifer • Aboveground tree biomass (tons/ha): biomass was derived from total merchantable volume estimates produced by provincial agencies • Height (meters): vegetation height • Crown closure (%): percentage of pixel covered by the tree canopy • Tree species cover (%): estimated as the proportion of the canopy covered by each tree species: o Balsam fir tree cover in percentage (Abies balsamea) o Black spruce tree cover in percentage (Picea mariana) o Douglas fir tree cover in percentage (Pseudotsuga menziesii) o Jack pine tree cover in percentage (Pinus banksiana) o Lodgepole pine tree cover in percentage (Pinus contorta) o Ponderosa pine tree cover in percentage (Pinus ponderosa) o Tamarack tree cover in percentage (Larix laricina) o White and red pine tree cover in percentage (Pinus strobus and Pinus resinosa) o Broadleaf tree cover in percentage (PrcB) o Other coniferous tree cover in percentage (PrcC)

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    This data publication contains an optimized mosaic of PALSAR-2 L-band dual-polarized radar backscatter summer composite for the year 2020 across Canada (excluding the Arctic Archipelago). Its primary purpose is to offer the best possible L-band radar summer-like composite mosaic mostly tailored for i) classifying natural treed or shrubby vegetation covers, and ii) estimating their structural attributes, such as height and biomass. ## Methodology: This product is based on the freely available and open dataset of yearly JAXA Global PALSAR-2/PALSAR Mosaics ver. 1 (hereafter JAXA GPM v1). They were generated by the Japanese space agency (JAXA) using PALSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar sensors aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellites (ALOS): ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 (2015 to 2020) and ALOS PALSAR (2007 to 2010). JAXA GPM v1 provide yearly mosaics orthorectified and slope-corrected L-band HH- and HV-polarized gamma naught (γ°) backscatter amplitude with 25-m pixel size and scaled as 16-bit data (Shimada et al. 2014). JAXA GPM v1 are accessible as a Google Earth Engine image collection at https://developers.google.com/earth-engine/datasets/catalog/JAXA_ALOS_PALSAR_YEARLY_SAR. The yearly 2007 to 2020 JAXA GPM v1 dataset across Canada underwent a post-processing and compositing methodology implemented in Google Earth Engine, as detailed in Pontone et al. 2024 and summarized in a pdf “Readme” file provided with the dataset. In summary, the method involves these three steps: 1. Post-processing of yearly γ° HH and HV datasets: handling data gaps, filtering speckle noise, and generating two radar vegetation indices, the HV/HH ratio (HVHH) and the radar forest degradation index (RFDI). 2. Temporal compositing from 2015 to 2020 of post-processed yearly γ° PALSAR-2 HH, HV, HVHH, and RFDI backscatter data aimed to i) address data gaps and ii) mitigate detrimental backscatter fluctuations across ALOS-2 orbits resulting from numerous out-of-summer acquisitions. 3. Generating the final PALSAR-2 L-band γ° radar backscatter summer composite circa 2020 raster files. ## Performance et limitations: The resulting Canada-wide, excluding the Arctic Archipelago, gap-free and radiometrically optimized mosaic of circa 2020 PALSAR-2 L-band backscatter summer composite was found significantly improved compared to the single-year 2020 JAXA GPM v1 mosaic, particularly in northern boreal Canada (Pontone et al. 2024). However, this product should be considered as a summer-like composite and users should be mindful of the following known limitations: • In northwestern Canada, there were often minimal to no summer PALSAR-2 acquisitions, resulting in residual backscatter fluctuations across ALOS-2 orbits. • The composite may exhibit patchy radiometric noise in areas that experienced major disturbances (fires, harvesting) between 2015 and 2020 despite they were accounted for in our compositing methodology. • This product is deemed less performant, or possibly not suitable, for i) characterizing highly dynamic land cover types such as grasslands, croplands, and water bodies, or for ii) estimating soil and/or vegetation moisture content for the year 2020. As a final note, JAXA released an improved GPM ver. 2 that was not available at the time of this study. A preliminary analysis shows that the circa 2020 PALSAR-2 composite product still seems to outperform the 2020 JAXA GPM v2 in northern Canada. ## Additional Information on Dataset: This dataset comprises four raster geotiff files of circa 2020 L-band PALSAR-2 summer temporal composites as mosaics of orthorectified and radiometrically slope corrected dual-polarized HH and HV gamma naught (γ°) backscatter amplitude, along with two radar vegetation indices (HVHH, RFDI), all scaled as 16-bit Digital Number (DN) values with 30-m pixel size in Lambert conformal conic projection. An additional 8-bit RGB quick-view file is also provided. A companion pdf ”Readme” file provides further details about these geotiff files and equations to convert DN values to γ° absolute intensity values. ## Dataset Citation: Beaudoin, A., Villemaire, P., Gignac, C., Tolszczuk, S., Guindon, L., Pontone, N., Millard, C. (2024). Canada’s PALSAR-2 dual-polarized L-band radar summer backscatter composite, circa 2020. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Quebec, Canada. https://doi.org/10.23687/8ec4ee78-9240-4bd0-9c97-d3a27829e209 In addition, please provide credits to the Japanese space agency JAXA with the mention “Original Global PALSAR-2/PALSAR Mosaics v1 provided by JAXA (©JAXA)” ## Publication Reference for Product Development and Use in Wetland Mapping: Pontone, N., Millard, K., Thompson, D., Guindon, L., Beaudoin, A. (2024). A hierarchical, Multi-Sensor Framework for Peatland Sub-Class and Vegetation Mapping Throughout the Canadian Boreal Forest. Remote Sensing for Ecology and Conservation (accepted for publication). ## Cited reference: Shimada, M., Itoh, T., Motooka, T., Watanabe, M., Tomohiro, S., Thapa, T., Lucas, R. (2014). New Global Forest/Non-Forest Maps from ALOS PALSAR Data (2007-2010). Remote Sensing of Environment, 155, pp. 13-31. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.rse.2014.04.014