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  • This service shows the ratio of persons aged 0 to 14 and 65 and over (children and seniors) versus persons aged 15 to 64 (working-age) by census division. The data is a custom extraction from the 2016 Census - 100% data. This data pertains to the total population by age. 'Age' refers to the age at last birthday before the reference date, that is, before May 10, 2016. For additional information refer to 'Age' in the 2016 Census Dictionary. For additional information refer to 'Age' in the 2016 Census Dictionary. To have a cartographic representation of the ecumene with this socio-economic indicator, it is recommended to add as the first layer, the “NRCan - 2016 population ecumene by census division” web service, accessible in the data resources section below.

  • This service shows the ratio of immigrants who arrived between 2001 and 2016 to immigrants who arrived before 2001, by census subdivision, 2016. The data is a custom extraction from the 2016 Census - 25% sample data. This data pertains to persons in private households who are immigrants by their period of immigration. 'Immigrant' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrant' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016. 'Period of immigration' refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status. For additional information refer to the 2016 Census Dictionary for 'Immigrant status' and 'Period of immigration'. For additional information refer to the 2016 Census Dictionary for 'Immigrant status' and 'Period of immigration'. To have a cartographic representation of the ecumene with this socio-economic indicator, it is recommended to add as the first layer, the “NRCan - 2016 population ecumene by census subdivision” web service, accessible in the data resources section below.

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    The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which used 2021 Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition. Using factor analysis, DA-level factor scores were calculated for each dimension. Within a dimension, ordered scores were assigned a quintile value, 1 through 5, where 1 represents the least deprived and 5 represents the most deprived. The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.

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    This service shows the percentage of the population who reported an Aboriginal identity by census division. The data is from the Census Profile, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X2016001. Aboriginal identity refers to whether the person identified with the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. This includes those who are First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or those who are Registered or Treaty Indians (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or those who have membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Users should be aware that the estimates associated with this variable are more affected than most by the incomplete enumeration of certain Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 2016 Census of Population. For additional information refer to the 2016 Census Dictionary for 'Aboriginal identity'. To have a cartographic representation of the ecumene with this socio-economic indicator, it is recommended to add as the first layer, the “NRCan - 2016 population ecumene by census division” web service, accessible in the data resources section below.

  • Categories  

    The Canadian Index of Multiple Deprivation (CIMD) is an area-based index which used 2016 Census of Population microdata to measure four key dimensions of deprivation at the dissemination area (DA)-level: residential instability, economic dependency, situational vulnerability and ethno-cultural composition. Using factor analysis, DA-level factor scores were calculated for each dimension. Within a dimension, ordered scores were assigned a quintile value, 1 through 5, where 1 represents the least deprived and 5 represents the most deprived. The CIMD allows for an understanding of inequalities in various measures of health and social well-being. While it is a geographically-based index of deprivation and marginalization, it can also be used as a proxy for an individual. The CIMD has the potential to be widely used by researchers on a variety of topics related to socio-economic research. Other uses for the index may include: policy planning and evaluation, or resource allocation.

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    “Ecumene” is a term used by geographers, meaning “inhabited lands.” Populated places in the ecumene database are referenced using natural boundaries, as opposed to administrative or census boundaries, and provide a more suitable means for integrating socio-economic data with ecological and environmental data in a region. The Canadian Ecumene GeoDatabase 3.0 includes the custom boundaries for more than 3,000 populated areas across Canada, many of which were derived from remote-sensing “night-lights” imagery. Each ecumene place has a corresponding set of attributes pertaining to place name, province, ecozone, indigenous communities, and other descriptive information, as well as an initial custom set of demographic variables derived from Statistics Canada Census and National Household Survey data for 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016. A number of additional layers are also included that map the extents of Canada's ecumene in alternate ways, using transportation and utility networks, nightlights imagery, and population density. (NOTE: In the list below, the V2 Shape, KML, and TIFF files have not changed for the CanEcumene 3.0) Provided layer: The Canadian Ecumene (CanEcumene) 3.0 GIS Database ============================================================================================ Database Citation (Update): Eddy, B.G., Muggridge, M., LeBlanc, R., Osmond, J., Kean, C., and Boyd, E. 2023. The CanEcumene 3.0 GIS Database. Federal Geospatial Platform (FGP), Natural Resources Canada. https://open.canada.ca Methods Publication Citation: Eddy B, Muggridge M, LeBlanc R, Osmond J, Kean C, Boyd E (2020) An Ecological Approach for Mapping Socio-Economic Data in Support of Ecosystems Analysis: Examples in Mapping Canada’s Forest Ecumene. One Ecosystem 5: e55881. https://doi.org/10.3897/oneeco.5.e55881

  • This service shows the percentage of population, excluding institutional residents, with knowledge of English and French for Canada by 2016 census subdivision. The data is from the Census Profile, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X2016001. Knowledge of official languages refers to whether the person can conduct a conversation in English only, French only, in both languages or in neither language. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, this includes languages that the child is learning to speak at home. For additional information refer to 'Knowledge of official languages' in the 2016 Census Dictionary. For additional information refer to 'Knowledge of official languages' in the 2016 Census Dictionary. To have a cartographic representation of the ecumene with this socio-economic indicator, it is recommended to add as the first layer, the “NRCan - 2016 population ecumene by census subdivision” web service, accessible in the data resources section below.

  • This service shows the ratio of immigrants who arrived between 2001 and 2016 to immigrants who arrived before 2001, by 2016 census division. The data is a custom extraction from the 2016 Census - 25% sample data. This data pertains to persons in private households who are immigrants by their period of immigration. 'Immigrant' includes persons who are, or who have ever been, landed immigrants or permanent residents. Such persons have been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this category. In the 2016 Census of Population, 'Immigrant' includes immigrants who landed in Canada on or prior to May 10, 2016. 'Period of immigration' refers to the period in which the immigrant first obtained landed immigrant or permanent resident status. For additional information refer to the 2016 Census Dictionary for 'Immigrant status' and 'Period of immigration'. For additional information refer to the 2016 Census Dictionary for 'Immigrant status' and 'Period of immigration'. To have a cartographic representation of the ecumene with this socio-economic indicator, it is recommended to add as the first layer, the “NRCan - 2016 population ecumene by census division” web service, accessible in the data resources section below.

  • This service shows the predominant mother tongue in each census subdivision based on English, French or non-official language. The data is from the data table Mother Tongue (10), Age (27) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2016 Census - 100% Data, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016046. Mother tongue refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the person at the time the data was collected. If the person no longer understands the first language learned, the mother tongue is the second language learned. For a person who learned two languages at the same time in early childhood, the mother tongue is the language this person spoke most often at home before starting school. The person has two mother tongues only if the two languages were used equally often and are still understood by the person. For a child who has not yet learned to speak, the mother tongue is the language spoken most often to this child at home. The child has two mother tongues only if both languages are spoken equally often so that the child learns both languages at the same time. For additional information refer to the 2016 Census Dictionary for 'Mother tongue'. To have a cartographic representation of the ecumene with this socio-economic indicator, it is recommended to add as the first layer, the “NRCan - 2016 population ecumene by census subdivision” web service, accessible in the data resources section below.

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    The Labour Force Distribution (LFD) maps are derived from the CanEcumene 2.0 Geodatabase using custom tabulations of census-based labour force data. These LFD maps were calculated for each of the five major natural resource sectors in Canada: Forestry, Fisheries, Agriculture, Minerals, and Petroleum and Coal. The measure used is the labour force of each sector as a proportion of the goods-producing sectors in the economy. Labour force proportions were first calculated at the individual community level, and then interpolated on a regional level using GIS (see Eddy et. al. 2020 for more detail). In effect, these maps show the strong importance of Canada’s natural resource sectors in various regions of the country. The darker the tone in each map indicates a region’s higher degree of dependency on a given sector for their economic livelihood.