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Climate change

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  • Fire weather refers to weather conditions that are conducive to fire. These conditions determine the fire season, which is the period(s) of the year during which fires are likely to start, spread and do sufficient damage to warrant organized fire suppression. The length of fire season is the difference between the start- and end-of-fire-season dates. These are defined by the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI; http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/) start-up and end dates. Start-up occurs when the station has been snow-free for 3 consecutive days, with noon temperatures of at least 12°C. For stations that do not report significant snow cover during the winter (i.e., less than 10 cm or snow-free for 75% of the days in January and February), start-up occurs when the mean daily temperature has been 6°C or higher for 3 consecutive days. The fire season ends with the onset of winter, generally following 7 consecutive days of snow cover. If there are no snow data, shutdown occurs following 7 consecutive days with noon temperatures lower than or equal to 5°C. Historical climate conditions were derived from the 1981–2010 Canadian Climate Normals. Future projections were computed using two different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). RCPs are different greenhouse gas concentration trajectories adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for its fifth Assessment Report. RCP 2.6 (referred to as rapid emissions reductions) assumes that greenhouse gas concentrations peak between 2010-2020, with emissions declining thereafter. In the RCP 8.5 scenario (referred to as continued emissions increases) greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise throughout the 21st century. Provided layer: difference in projected fire season length for the long-term (2071-2100) under the RCP 2.6 (rapid emissions reductions) compared to reference period across Canada.

  • Fire weather refers to weather conditions that are conducive to fire. These conditions determine the fire season, which is the period(s) of the year during which fires are likely to start, spread and do sufficient damage to warrant organized fire suppression. The length of fire season is the difference between the start- and end-of-fire-season dates. These are defined by the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI; http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/) start-up and end dates. Start-up occurs when the station has been snow-free for 3 consecutive days, with noon temperatures of at least 12°C. For stations that do not report significant snow cover during the winter (i.e., less than 10 cm or snow-free for 75% of the days in January and February), start-up occurs when the mean daily temperature has been 6°C or higher for 3 consecutive days. The fire season ends with the onset of winter, generally following 7 consecutive days of snow cover. If there are no snow data, shutdown occurs following 7 consecutive days with noon temperatures lower than or equal to 5°C. Historical climate conditions were derived from the 1981–2010 Canadian Climate Normals. Future projections were computed using two different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). RCPs are different greenhouse gas concentration trajectories adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for its fifth Assessment Report. RCP 2.6 (referred to as rapid emissions reductions) assumes that greenhouse gas concentrations peak between 2010-2020, with emissions declining thereafter. In the RCP 8.5 scenario (referred to as continued emissions increases) greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise throughout the 21st century. Provided layer: difference in projected fire season length for the long-term (2071-2100) under the RCP 8.5 (continued emissions increases) compared to reference period across Canada.

  • Fire weather refers to weather conditions that are conducive to fire. These conditions determine the fire season, which is the period(s) of the year during which fires are likely to start, spread and do sufficient damage to warrant organized fire suppression. The length of fire season is the difference between the start- and end-of-fire-season dates. These are defined by the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI; http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/) start-up and end dates. Start-up occurs when the station has been snow-free for 3 consecutive days, with noon temperatures of at least 12°C. For stations that do not report significant snow cover during the winter (i.e., less than 10 cm or snow-free for 75% of the days in January and February), start-up occurs when the mean daily temperature has been 6°C or higher for 3 consecutive days. The fire season ends with the onset of winter, generally following 7 consecutive days of snow cover. If there are no snow data, shutdown occurs following 7 consecutive days with noon temperatures lower than or equal to 5°C. Historical climate conditions were derived from the 1981–2010 Canadian Climate Normals. Future projections were computed using two different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). RCPs are different greenhouse gas concentration trajectories adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for its fifth Assessment Report. RCP 2.6 (referred to as rapid emissions reductions) assumes that greenhouse gas concentrations peak between 2010-2020, with emissions declining thereafter. In the RCP 8.5 scenario (referred to as continued emissions increases) greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise throughout the 21st century. Provided layer: difference in projected fire season length for the medium-term (2041-2070) under the RCP 8.5 (continued emissions increases) compared to reference period across Canada.

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    Drought is a deficiency in precipitation over an extended period, usually a season or more, resulting in a water shortage that has adverse impacts on vegetation, animals and/or people. The Climate Moisture Index (CMI) was calculated as the difference between annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) – the potential loss of water vapour from a landscape covered by vegetation. Positive CMI values indicate wet or moist conditions and show that precipitation is sufficient to sustain a closed-canopy forest. Negative CMI values indicate dry conditions that, at best, can support discontinuous parkland-type forests. The CMI is well suited to evaluating moisture conditions in dry regions such as the Prairie Provinces and has been used for other ecological studies. Mean annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) was estimated for 30-year periods using the modified Penman-Monteith formulation of Hogg (1997), based on monthly 10-km gridded temperature data. Data shown on maps are 30-year averages. Historical values of CMI (1981-2010) were created by averaging annual CMI calculated from interpolated monthly temperature and precipitation data produced from climate station records. Future values of CMI were projected from downscaled monthly values of temperature and precipitation simulated using the Canadian Earth System Model version 2 (CanESM2) for two different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). RCPs are different greenhouse gas concentration trajectories adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for its fifth Assessment Report. RCP 2.6 (referred to as rapid emissions reductions) assumes that greenhouse gas concentrations peak between 2010-2020, with emissions declining thereafter. In the RCP 8.5 scenario (referred to as continued emissions increases) greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise throughout the 21st century. Multiple layers are provided. First, the mean annual Climate Moisture Index is shown across Canada for a reference period (1981-2010). Projected mean annual Climate Moisture Index is available for the short- (2011-2040), medium- (2041-2070), and long-term (2071-2100) under the RCP 8.5 (continued emissions increases) and, for the long-term (2071-2100), under RCP 2.6 (rapid emissions reductions). Reference: Hogg, E.H. 1997. Temporal scaling of moisture and the forest-grassland boundary in western Canada. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 84,115–122.

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    This dataset provides 1/36-degree monthly mean ocean current climatology (October - March) in the Northeast Pacific. The climatological fields are derived from hourly ocean currents for the perid from 1993 to 2020, simulated using a high-resolution Northeast Pacific Ocean Model (NEPOM).

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    This dataset provides 1/36-degree monthly-mean ocean current climatology (April - September) in the Northeast Pacific. The climatological fields are derived from hourly ocean currents for the period from 1993 to 2020, simulated using a high-resolution Northeast Pacific Ocean Model (NEPOM).

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    Polygons representing heat islands on the ground surface. A heat island is defined as the difference in temperatures observed between two surrounding environments at the same time. The different temperature differences are mainly explained by the type of soil layout such as the vegetation cover, the impermeability of the materials and the thermal properties of the materials. This difference can reach more than 12°C. The 2020-2030 Montreal Climate Plan aims, among other things, to improve planning and regulatory tools in urban planning. Montréal has thus committed to updating the climate change vulnerability analysis, including the heat island map, carried out as part of the 2015-2020 Agglomération de Montréal Climate Change Adaptation Plan and to integrating it into the next urban and mobility plan. The urban heat island maps were produced in collaboration with the Department of Geography of the University of Quebec in Montreal (UQAM). The data can also be viewed on the [interactive heat island map] (https://bter.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=157cde446d8942d7b4367e2159942e05).**This third party metadata element was translated using an automated translation tool (Amazon Translate).**

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    Rate of mineralization and vegetation of surfaces in the territory of the agglomeration of Montreal represented by polygons and based on the data [Mineral and vegetable surfaces of 2016] (https://donnees.montreal.ca/dataset/surfaces-minerales-vegetales) from the Geomatics Division of the City of Montreal. The data was calculated at the district level and at the level of the distribution islands of Statistics Canada. The data can also be consulted on the [interactive climate change vulnerability map] (https://experience.arcgis.com/experience/944e0b7104bd491591ccca829da24670/page/Page/).**This third party metadata element was translated using an automated translation tool (Amazon Translate).**

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    Stations for measuring the impact of greening projects on air temperature and humidity. Fifteen stations were installed across the City of Montreal for a period of 10 summers in order to study the impact of urban development on heat. In the long term, the City wishes to install 25 throughout its territory. Better understanding these phenomena is an essential step in order to be able to address the problem of extreme heat in urban areas, which have an impact on the health and well-being of citizens. With this project, the City intends to measure the impact of greening projects on air temperature, train and raise awareness among its staff by participating in a research/action project and raise public awareness of the impact of greening on air temperature.**This third party metadata element was translated using an automated translation tool (Amazon Translate).**

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    Under the Regulation Respecting the Mandatory Reporting of Certain Contaminant Emissions into the Atmosphere (RDOECA), the Ministry of the Environment, the Fight against Climate Change, Wildlife and Parks collects data on greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by Quebec businesses in particular. Thus, any person or municipality operating an establishment that emits GHGs into the atmosphere in a quantity equal to or greater than 10,000 metric tons in CO2 equivalent (t eq. CO2) is required to report its emissions no later than June 1 of each year. Data are presented in separate files: * Total and biogenic CO2 emissions per establishment; * Emissions per establishment and per greenhouse gas and per establishment. Total emissions files include the total quantity of GHGs, the total quantity of GHGs excluding CO2 from biomass, the quantity of CO2 from the combustion of biomass, and the quantity of CO2 from other uses of biomass (for example fermentation). The emission files by establishment and by greenhouse gas include the quantity emitted of each of the GHGs in metric tons and t eq. CO2. Note that CO2 emissions include those from biomass. The data presented in this dataset includes emissions from mandatory and voluntary reporting.**This third party metadata element was translated using an automated translation tool (Amazon Translate).**