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    The European Urban Atlas provides reliable, inter-comparable, high-resolution land use and land cover data for 785 Functional Urban Area (FUA) for the 2012 reference year in EEA38 countries (EU, EFTA and Western Balkan countries as well as Türkiye) and United Kingdom. The spatial data can be downloaded together with a map for each FUA covered and a report with the metadata for the respective area. Urban Atlas is a joint initiative of the Commission Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy and the Directorate-General for Defence Industry and Space (DEFIS) in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme, with the support of the European Space Agency and the European Environment Agency. You can read more about the product here: https://land.copernicus.eu/en/products/urban-atlas/urban-atlas-2012.

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    This metadata refers to the HRL Forest 2018 primary status layer Tree Cover Density (TCD). The TCD raster product provides information on the proportional crown coverage per pixel at 10m spatial resolution and ranges from 0% (all non-tree covered areas) to 100%, whereby Tree Cover Density is defined as the "vertical projection of tree crowns to a horizontal earth’s surface“. The production of the High Resolution Forest layers was coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme. The HRL Forest product consists of 3 types of (status) products and additional change products. The status products are available for 2012, 2015, and 2018 reference years: 1. Tree cover density (TCD) (level of tree cover density in a range from 0-100%) 2. Dominant leaf type (DLT) (broadleaved or coniferous majority) 3. Forest type product (FTY). The forest type product allows to get as close as possible to the FAO forest definition. In its original (10m (2018) / 20m (2012, 2015)) resolution it consists of two products: a dominant leaf type product that has a MMU of 0.5 ha, as well as a 10% tree cover density threshold applied, and 2) a support layer that maps (now only available on demand), based on the dominant leaf type product, trees under agricultural use and in urban context (derived from CLC and imperviousness 2009 data). For the final 100 m product trees under agricultural use and urban context from the support layer are removed. NEW for 2018: the 10m 2018 reference year FTY product now also has the agricultural/urban trees removed. In the past this was done only for the 100m product, now it is consistently applied for both the 10m and the 100m FTY products. This dataset is provided as 10 meter rasters (fully conformant with the EEA reference grid) in 100 x 100 km tiles grouped according to the EEA38 countries and the United Kingdom. You can find more information about the product here: https://land.copernicus.eu/en/products/high-resolution-layer-tree-cover-density/tree-cover-density-2018.

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    The Urban Atlas provides pan-European comparable land use and land cover data for Functional Urban Areas (FUA). The Urban Atlas Change layers have become available from 2012 and only for all FUAs that have been covered in both 2006 and 2012 reference years. Urban Atlas is a joint initiative of the European Commission Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy and the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme, with the support of the European Space Agency and the European Environment Agency.

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    The High Resolution Layer (HRL) Grassland 2018 raster product provides a basic land cover classification with 2 thematic classes (grassland / non-grassland) at 10m spatial resolution, covering the EEA38 area and the United Kingdom. The production of the High Resolution grassland layers was coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme. This is the main High Resolution grassland product. This grassy and non-woody vegetation baseline product includes all kinds of grasslands: managed grassland, semi-natural grassland and natural grassy vegetation. It is a binary status layer for the 2015 reference year mapping grassland and all non-grassland areas in 20m and (aggregated) 100m pixel size and, for the 2018 reference year, in 10m and (aggregated) 100m pixel size. The dataset for this product is provided as 10 meter rasters in 100 x 100 km tiles (fully conformant with EEA reference grid) grouped according to the EEA38 countries and the United Kingdom. You can read more about the product here: https://land.copernicus.eu/en/products/high-resolution-layer-grassland/grassland-2018.

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    The Start-of-Season Date (SOSD), one of the Vegetation Phenology and Productivity (VPP) parameters, is a product of the pan-European High Resolution Vegetation Phenology and Productivity (HR-VPP) component of the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service (CLMS). The Start-of-Season Date (SOSD) marks the date when the vegetation growing season starts in the time profile of the Plant Phenology Index (PPI). The start-of-season occurs, by definition, when the PPI value reaches 25% of the season amplitude during the green-up period. The Plant Phenology Index (PPI) is a physically based vegetation index, developed for improving the monitoring of the vegetation growth cycle. The PPI index values, with 5-day satellite revisit cycle, are first used in a function fitting to derive the PPI Seasonal Trajectories, which is a filtered time series with regular 10-day time step. From these Seasonal Trajectories, a suite of 13 Vegetation Phenology and Productivity (VPP) parameters are then computed and provided, for up to two seasons each year. The Start-of-Season Date is one of the 13 parameters. The full list is available in the table 3 of the Product User Manual https://land.copernicus.eu/en/technical-library/product-user-manual-of-seasonal-trajectories/@@download/file A complementary quality indicator (QFLAG) provides a confidence level, that is described in table 4 of the same manual. The SOSD dataset is made available as raster files with 10 x 10m resolution, in UTM/WGS84 projection corresponding to the Sentinel-2 tiling grid, for those tiles that cover the EEA38 countries and the United Kingdom and for two seasons in each year from 2017 onwards. It is updated in the first quarter of each year.

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    This metadata refers to the Plant Phenology Index (PPI) dataset, one of the near real-time (NRT) Vegetation Index products of the pan-European High Resolution Vegetation Phenology and Productivity (HR-VPP), component of the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service (CLMS). The Plant Phenology Index (PPI) is a physically based vegetation index for improved monitoring of plant phenology, that is developed from a simplified solution to the radiative transfer equation by Jin and Eklundh (2014). PPI has a linear relationship with green leaf area index, a strong correlation with gross primary productivity, and is capable of disentangling remotely sensed plant phenology from snow seasonality. It is reported to be superior to other indices for spring phenology retrieval over the northern latitudes and for GPP estimation in African semi-arid ecosystems. Comparison of satellite-derived PPI to ground observations of plant phenology and gross primary productivity (GPP) shows strong similarity of temporal patterns over several Nordic boreal forest sites. The PPI dataset is made available as raster files with 10 x 10m resolution, in UTM/WGS84 projection corresponding to the Sentinel-2 tiling grid, for those tiles that cover the EEA38 countries and the United Kingdom and for the period from October 2016 until today, with daily updates. Each file has an associated quality indicator (QFLAG2) to assist users with the screening of clouds, shadows from clouds and topography, snow and water surfaces.

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    The European Urban Atlas provides reliable, inter-comparable, high-resolution land use maps for 305 Large Urban Zones and their surroundings (more than 100.000 inhabitants as defined by the Urban Audit) for the reference year 2006 in EU member states. Urban Atlas is a joint initiative of the European Commission Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy and the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme, with the support of the European Space Agency and the European Environment Agency.

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    The Coastal Zones LC/LU Change (CZC) 2012-2018 is providing the Land Cover / Land Use (LC/ LU) change for areas along the coastline of the EEA38 countries and the United Kingdom, between the reference years 2012 and 2018. The Coastal Zones product monitors landscape dynamics in European coastal territory to an inland depth of 10 km with a total area of approximately 730,000 km², with all the relevant areas (estuaries, coastal lowlands, nature reserves). The production of the coastal zone layers was coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme, as part of the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service (CLMS) Local Component. The Coastal Zones Change product covers a buffer zone of coastline derived from EU-Hydro v1.1. The Land Cover/Land Use (LC/LU) Change layer is extracted from Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite data and other available data. The reference years for the change are 2012 and 2018. The class definitions follow the pre-defined nomenclature on the basis of Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) typology of ecosystems (Level 1 to Level 4) and CORINE Land Cover adapted to the specific characteristics of coastal zones. The classification provides 71 distinct thematic classes with a Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU) of 0.5 ha and a Minimum Mapping Width (MMW) of 10 m. The status product is available for the 2012 and 2018 reference years. This CZC dataset is distributed in vector format, in a single OGC GeoPackage file covering the area of interest. You can read more about the product here: https://land.copernicus.eu/en/products/coastal-zones/coastal-zones-change-2012-2018.

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    The Coastal Zones (CZ) LC/LU product for 2018 is providing a detailed Land Cover / Land Use (LC/ LU) dataset for areas along the coastline of the EEA38 countries and the United Kingdom, with reference year 2018 for the classification. This product monitors landscape dynamics in European coastal territory to an inland depth of 10 km with a total area of approximately 730,000 km², with all the relevant areas (estuaries, coastal lowlands, nature reserves). The production of the coastal zone layers was coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme, as part of the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service (CLMS) Local Component. The Coastal Zones product covers a buffer zone of coastline derived from EU-Hydro v1.1. Land Cover/Land Use (LC/LU) layer is extracted from Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite data and other available data. The class definitions follow the pre-defined nomenclature on the basis of Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) typology of ecosystems (Level 1 to Level 4) and CORINE Land Cover adapted to the specific characteristics of coastal zones. The classification provides 71 distinct thematic classes with a Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU) of 0.5 ha and a Minimum Mapping Width (MMW) of 10 m. The product is available for the 2012 and 2018 reference year including change mapping. This CZ dataset is distributed in vector format, in a single OGC GeoPackage SQLite file covering the area of interest. You can read more about the product here: https://land.copernicus.eu/en/products/coastal-zones/coastal-zones-2018.

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    The High Resolution Layer (HRL) Forest 2018 status layer Forest Type (FTY) provides a forest classification with 3 thematic classes (all non-forest areas / broadleaved forest / coniferous forest) at 10m spatial resolution and with a Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU) of 0.5 ha. This raster layer is largely following the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations) forest definition with tree covered areas in agricultural and urban context excluded and covers the full of EEA38 area and the United Kingdom. The dataset is provided as 10 meter rasters in 100 x 100 km tiles grouped according to the EEA38 countries and the United Kingdom (fully confirmat with the EEA reference grid). The production of the High Resolution forest layers was coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme. The High Resolution forest product consists of three types of (status) products and additional change products. The status products are available for the 2012, 2015 and 2018 reference years: 1. Tree cover density providing level of tree cover density in a range from 0-100%; 2. Dominant leaf type providing information on the dominant leaf type: broadleaved or coniferous; 3. A Forest type product. The forest type product allows to get as close as possible to the FAO forest definition. In its original (20m) resolution it consists of two products: 1) a dominant leaf type product that has a MMU of 0.5 ha, as well as a 10% tree cover density threshold applied, and 2) a support layer that maps, based on the dominant leaf type product, trees under agricultural use and in urban context (derived from CLC and high resolution imperviousness 2009 data). For the final 100m product trees under agricultural use and urban context from the support layer are removed. The high resolution forest change products comprise a simple tree cover density change product for 2012-2015 (% increase or decrease of real tree cover density changes). You can find more information about the product here: https://land.copernicus.eu/en/products/high-resolution-layer-forest-type/forest-type-2018.