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  • This product provides the variability index for selected drainage regions in Canada. Variability is measured using a coefficient of variation (CV) to compare all months over a 42-year time period and is a measure of the dispersion or variation in the monthly yield values from 1971 to 2013 (and 1971 to 2012 for drainage region 1). It is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean or the standard deviation divided by the mean, with higher CVs indicating more variability in monthly water yields. The monthly variability was not calculated for drainage regions 5, 7, 8, 16, 17, 18, or the Labrador portion of 25.

  • This product provides runoff data with each contour line corresponding to an average amount of annual runoff (in millimeters). Runoff data were derived from discharge values from hydrometric stations with natural flows. Not all years are included for every region of the country due to data quality and availability issues. Data cover the period 1971 to 2013 for the south and 1971 to 2004 for the north. These files were produced by Statistics Canada, Environment, Energy and Transportation Statistics Division, 2017, based on data from Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2015, Water Survey of Canada, Archived Hydrometric Data (HYDAT), www.ec.gc.ca/rhc- wsc/default.asp?lang=En&n=4EED50F1-1 (accessed December 3, 2015); Spence, C. and A. Burke, 2008, “Estimates of Canadian Arctic Archipelago runoff from observed hydrometric data,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 362, pp. 247–259. For more information about methods, results and limitations see Appendix D in Statistics Canada, 2017, “Freshwater in Canada,” Human Activity and the Environment, Catalogue no. 16-201-X. The purpose of the dataset is to present runoff values as derived from Statistics Canada's Water Yield Model on a national scale map of 1:32,000,000. This product is intended to be used for reference or mapping purposes. The product ends at the shoreline of Canada as defined by the drainage region boundaries supplied for drainage regions of Canada. It does not include the Arctic Islands.

  • This product provides the ratio of surface freshwater intake to water yield for August 2013, with the exception of drainage regions 7, 8, 16, 17 and 18, which use the ratio of August intake to the long-term minimum monthly water yield. Surface freshwater intake aggregates data from the Survey of Drinking Water Plants, 2013 and the Industrial Water Use Survey, 2013 with estimates of agricultural water use for 2013 based on the Agricultural Water Use Survey and the Alberta Irrigation Information report. Data for water use by the oil and gas industry and households not supplied by a public water provider are also excluded.

  • This product provides the median of monthly maximum turbidity values (in nephelometric turbidity units) for drinking water facilities by drainage region. Turbidity refers to the relative cloudiness of water, caused by suspended particles in water. The Survey of Drinking Water Plants collected this monthly maximum turbidity data for surface water sources from facilities reporting turbidity data for at least 10 months in 2013. These facilities served 24 million people and produced 4,091 million cubic metres of potable water from surface water sources in 2013. Source water turbidity was monitored continuously at 42% of these drinking water plants in 2013, daily at 34% of plants and less frequently at the remaining plants.

  • This dataset contains the surface temperature and salinity data of the enlarged coastal thermograph network of the St. Lawrence river, estuary and gulf system. It includes data from the Canadian Hydrographic Service water level network (SINECO), the DFO-Quebec long-termed thermograph monitoring program network and the oceanographic buoy network. Each station is linked with a .png file showing the temperature and salinity time series and with a .csv file containing the surface temperature and salinity data themselves (columns : Station,Latitude,Longitude,Date(UTC),Depth/Profondeur(m),Temperature/Température(ºC),Salinity/Salinité(psu)). Supplemental Information A detailed description of the networks (SINECO, oceanographic buoys and the DFO-Quebec thermograph monitoring program) is available at the St. Lawrence Global Observatory (SLGO) portal : SINECO : https://ogsl.ca/en/navigation/marine-conditions-tidegauges/chs-tidegauges/summary Oceanographic buoys : https://ogsl.ca/en/navigation/marine-conditions-buoys/dfo/summary Thermographs: https://ogsl.ca/en/navigation/marine-conditions-thermographs/dfo/summary Technical Reports related to the Thermograph Network (the last one is also available at the same hypertext link mentionned above) : Pettigrew, B., Gilbert, D. and Desmarais R. 2016. Thermograph network in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci. 311: vi + 77 p. Pettigrew, B., Gilbert, D. and Desmarais R. 2017. Thermograph network in the Gulf of St. Lawrence: 2014-2016 update. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci. 317: vii + 54 p.

  • 1999 to 2019 surface temperature and salinity measured along the track of commercial ships, mostly between Montreal (Quebec) and St. John's (Newfoundland). Monitoring of surface water conditions in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence is carried out with different complementary methods such as thermosalinographs (TSG) installed on commercial ships. These ships are sailing all year long from Montreal to St. John’s, one round trip per week, and are sampling water near the surface (3 to 8 meters deep) to determine the temperature and salinity all along the route. Purpose The recorded data are used as input to numerical forecasting models for sea ice conditions and as a monitoring tool for the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Annual reports are available at the Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS), (http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/index-eng.htm). Galbraith, P.S., Chassé, J., Caverhill, C., Nicot, P., Gilbert, D., Lefaivre, D. and Lafleur, C. 2018. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2017. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2018/050. v + 79 p.

  • Mean 2008 to 2017 summer surface conditions in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Data come from the August and the September multidisciplinary surveys. Surface conditions are described by temperature, salinity and nutrient concentration (mmol/m³) interpolated on a 10 km x 10 km grid. Purpose Since 1990, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans has been conducting an annual multidisciplinary survey in the Estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence using a standardized protocol. In the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, these bottom trawl surveys has been carrying out each September since 1971. These missions are an important source of information about the status of the marine ressources. The objectives of the surveys are multiple: to estimate the abundance and biomass of groundfish and invertebrates, to identify the spatial distribution and biological characteristics of these species, to monitor the biodiversity of the Estuary and Gulf and finally, to describe the environmental conditions observed in the area at the moment of the sampling. The southern Gulf surveys are realized using the following standardized protocol: Hurlbut,T. and D.Clay (eds) 1990. Protocols for Research Vessel Cruises within the Gulf Region (Demersal Fish) (1970-1987). Can. MS Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 2082: 143p. The sampling protocols used for the Estuary and northern Gulf surveys are described in details in the following publications: Bourdages, H., Archambault, D., Bernier, B., Fréchet, A., Gauthier, J., Grégoire, F., Lambert, J., et Savard, L. 2010. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2009 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Rapp. stat. can. sci. halieut. aquat. 1226 : xii+ 72 p. Bourdages, H., Archambault, D., Morin, B., Fréchet, A., Savard, L., Grégoire, F., et Bérubé, M. 2003. Résultats préliminaires du relevé multidisciplinaire de poissons de fond et de crevette d’août 2003 dans le nord du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Secr. can. consult. sci. du MPO. Doc. rech. 2003/078. vi + 68 p. Annual reports are available at the Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS), (http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/index-eng.htm). Bourdages, H., Brassard, C., Desgagnés, M., Galbraith, P., Gauthier, J., Légaré, B., Nozères, C. and Parent, E. 2017. Preliminary results from the groundfish and shrimp multidisciplinary survey in August 2016 in the Estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2017/002. v + 87 p.

  • Mean 2010 to 2019 winter surface conditions in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Year 2010 was not considered in the mean because it was exceptionally warm. The survey has been taking place every year in March. Surface conditions are described by temperature, salinity and nutrient concentration (mmol/m3) interpolated on a 10km x 10km grid. Purpose Since many years, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) has been conducting annual surveys, at different periods of the year, in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, each having many objectives including assessment of environmental conditions. However, these surveys, carried out on vessels, did not cover the winter period. Since 1996, a regional monitoring program, conducted by Maurice-Lamontagne Institute scientists, is taking place in order to fill this gap. The annual helicopter survey is undertaken in the beginning of March to evaluate physical oceanographic conditions of waters up to 200 m and surface water nutrient contains. These surveys are usually sampled from a Canadian Coast Guard helicopter but from an icebreaker in 2016 and 2017. Data from regional monitoring programs are combined with the ones from the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) to produce annual reports (physical, biological and a Zonal Scientific Advice) which are available at the Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS), (http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/index-eng.htm). Galbraith, P.S., Chassé, J., Caverhill, C., Nicot, P., Gilbert, D., Pettigrew, B., Lefaivre, D., Brickman, D., Devine, L., and Lafleur, C. 2017. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2016. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2017/044. v + 91 p. Devine, L., Scarratt, M., Plourde, S., Galbraith, P.S., Michaud, S., and Lehoux, C. 2017. Chemical and Biological Oceanographic Conditions in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence during 2015. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2017/034. v + 48 pp. Additional Information Water sampling for nutrient analysis is done from Niskin bottles according to AZMP sampling protocol: Mitchell, M. R., Harrison, G., Pauley, K., Gagné, A., Maillet, G., and Strain, P. 2002. Atlantic Zonal Monitoring Program sampling protocol. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci. 223: iv + 23 pp. Nitrate titration is carried out according to the following method ((nitrite + nitrate) – nitrite): Nitrite + nitrate: Armstrong, FAJ, CR Stearns, JDH Strickland (1967) The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Res 14(3) 381-389. Nitrite: American Public Health Assoc. (1971) Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 13th edition, pp. 240-243, Washington D.C. Phosphate: Murphy, J, JP Riley (1962) A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim. Acta 27 : 30. Silicate: Strickland, JDH, TR Parsons (1972) A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis, second edition. Fish Res Board Can, Bulletin 167, 310 pp. The surface water temperature and salinity are determined from CTD profiles.

  • The National Hydro Network (NHN) focuses on providing a quality geometric description and a set of basic attributes describing Canada's inland surface waters. It provides geospatial digital data compliant with the NHN Standard such as lakes, reservoirs, watercourses (rivers and streams), canals, islands, drainage linear network, toponyms or geographical names, constructions and obstacles related to surface waters, etc. The best available federal and provincial data are used for its production, which is done jointly by the federal and interested provincial and territorial partners. The NHN is created from existing data at the 1:50 000 scale or better. The NHN data have a great potential for analysis, cartographic representation and display and will serve as base data in many applications. The NHN Work Unit Limits were created based on Water Survey of Canada Sub-Sub-Drainage Area.

  • The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS ) is one of the most sophisticated sensors that is used in a wide range of applications related to land, ocean and atmosphere. It has 36 spectral channels with spatial resolution varying between 250 m and 1 km at nadir. MODIS channels 1 (B1, visible) and 2 (B2, near infrared) are available at 250 m spatial resolution, an additional five channels for terrestrial applications (bands B3 to B7) are available at 500 m spatial resolution, the other twenty-nine channels not included in this data set capture images with a spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS record begins in March 2000 and extends to present with daily measurements over the globe. This level 3 product for Canada was created from the following original Level 1 (1B) MODIS data (collection 5): a) MOD02QKM - Level 1B 250 m swath data, 5 min granules; b ) MOD02HKM - level 1B , 500 m swath data, 5 min granules; c) MOD03 - level 1 geolocation information, 1 km swath data, 5 min granules. All these data are available from the DAAC Earth Observing System Data Gateway (NASA http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/data/search.html). The terrestrial channels MODIS (B3 to B7) at 500 m spatial resolution were reduced to 250 m with an adaptive regression system and normalization described in Trishchenko et al. (2006, 2009), and the data were mapped using a Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC ) projection (Khlopenkov et al., 2008). These data were combined to form pan-Canadian images using a technique for detection of clear sky, clouds and cloud shadows with a maximum interval of 10 days (Luo et al., 2008). Atmospheric and sun-sensor geometry corrections have not been applied. For each date, data include forward and backward scattering observations as separate files. This allows data to be optimized for a given application. For general use, data from either forward or backward scattering or both should be used. Future release of the MODIS time series will correct the forward and backward scattering geometry to provide a single best observation for each pixel.