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Remote sensing

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  • The “Land Cover for Agricultural Regions of Canada, circa 2000” is a thematic land cover classification representative of Circa 2000 conditions for agricultural regions of Canada. Land cover is derived from Landsat5-TM and/or 7-ETM+ multi-spectral imagery by inputting imagery and ground reference training data into a Decision-Tree or Supervised image classification process. Object segmentation, pixel filtering, and/or post editing is applied as part of the image classification. Mapping is corrected to the GeoBase Data Alignment Layer. National Road Network (1:50,000) features and other select existing land cover products are integrated into the product. UTM Zone mosaics are generated from individual 30 meter resolution classified scenes. A spatial index is available indicating the Landsat imagery scenes and dates input in the classification. This product is published and compiled by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), but also integrates products mapped by other provincial and federal agencies; with appropriate legend adaptations. This release includes UTM Zones 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 for corresponding agricultural regions in Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Québec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia covering approximately 370,000,000 hectares of mapped area. Mapped classes include: Water, Exposed, Built-up, Shrubland, Wetland, Grassland, Annual Crops, Perennial Crops and Pasture, Coniferous, Deciduous and Mixed forests. However, emphasis is placed on accurately delineating agricultural classes, including: annual crops (cropland and specialty crops like vineyards and orchards), perennial crops (including pastures and forages), and grasslands.

  • McElhanney Consulting Services Ltd (MCSL) has performed a LiDAR and Imagery survey in southern Saskatchewan. The acquisition was completed between the 16th and 25th of October, 2009. The survey consisted of approximately 790 square kilometers of coverage. While collecting the LiDAR data, we also acquired aerial photo in RGB and NIR modes consisting of 1649 frames each.

  • The “Land Cover for Agricultural Regions of Canada (circa 2000), Date Index” dataset is a geospatial data layer containing polygon features representing the Landsat scene number, associated dates and other products that were incorporated into the thematic land cover classification which is contained within the AAFC Landcover (circa 2000) product.

  • This land cover data set was derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor operating on board the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Information on the NOAA series of satellites can be found at www.noaa.gov/satellites.html The vegetation and land cover information set has been classified into twelve categories. Information on the classification of the vegetation and land cover, raster to vector conversion, generalization for cartographic presentations is included in the paper "The Canada Vegetation and Land Cover: A Raster and Vector Data Set for GIS Applications - Uses in Agriculture" (https://geogratis.cgdi.gc.ca/download/landcover/scale/gis95ppr.pdf). A soil quality evaluation was obtained by cross-referencing the AVHRR information with Census of Agriculture records and biophysical (Soil Landscapes of Canada) data and is also included in the above paper. AVHRR Land Cover Data approximates a 1:2M scale and was done originally for Agriculture Canada. The projection used is Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC) 49/77 with origin at 49N 95W.

  • McElhanney Consulting Services Ltd (MCSL) has performed a LiDAR and Imagery survey in southern Saskatchewan. The purpose was to generate DEMs for hydraulic modeling of floodplain, digital terrain maps, and other products for portions of the Swift Current Creek valley and other miscellaneous tributaries and related water course valleys in and around the City of Swift Current. The acquisition was completed between the 16th and 25th of October, 2009. The survey consisted of approximately 790 square kilometers of coverage. While collecting the LiDAR data, we also acquired aerial photo in RGB and NIR modes consisting of 1649 frames each. In addition to the main area of interest, McElhanney has acquired some LiDAR and photo of low lying areas adjacent to the project area. This additional area was acquired on speculation that the data may be required in the future. The 3Dimensional laser returns (point cloud) were classified using Microstation (v8), Terrascan and TerraModeler. A series of algorithms based on topography were created to separate laser returns that hit the ground from the ones that hit objects above the ground. Steps taken are: Classified LiDAR surface as Bare earth, Classified other features as non-bare earth or default, Formatted to ASPRS .LAS V1.1 (Class 1 - Default (non-bare earth), Class 2 – Ground points (bare earth)), 239 tiles each 2km x2km generated for LiDAR data, File prefix FF – Classified (Non-Bare Earth and Bare Earth), File Prefix BE – Bare Earth only, Bare Earth Model Key Point (MKPts) surface files are thinned Bare earth LiDAR points. MKPts files generate a virtually identical surface without the large file size, MKPts file format is ASCII (Easting Northing Z-elevation) xyz and LAS format.

  • This data publication contains a set of files in which different variables related to fire burned severity (Canada Landsat Burned Severity, CanLaBS) were computed for all events in Canada between 1985 and 2015 as detected by the Canada Landsat Disturbance (CanLaD (Guindon et al. 2017 and 2018) product. Details on the creation of this product are available in Guindon et al. 2020 (https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2020-0353) and in supplementary materials accompanying the publication. The current document is therefore a complement to the article and supplementary materials. The supplementary materials are referenced in the publication (cjfr-2020-0353suppla, cjfr-2020-0353supplb etc.). This is the first Canada-wide product that aims to promote nationwide research on fire severity by making available the data used in the article. The data is in the form of grids composed of pixels at a resolution of 30m. To simplify the distribution and manipulation of the data and considering that two or three fire occurrences within a given location is rare (respectively 2.3% and less than 0.01%), only the most recent fire data are considered in the final product. For these very rare cases, from 2015 to 1985, the most recent burned areas overlap the older data. Overlapping fire count can be found in layer “CanLaBS_Nbdisturb_v0”, multiple fire events in same areas have values equal to or greater than two. Landsat radiometric values for calculating the NBR index were derived from summer Landsat mosaics (July and August), for years 1984 to 2015 (Guindon et al. 2018). These mosaics were developed from individual USGS Landsat scenes with surface reflectance correction (Masek et al., 2006; Vermote et al., 2006). For each annual compound, the pixel with the less atmospheric opacity was selected. An algorithm was also developed to remove clouds that were not detected by the cloud masks provided with the USGS data. Here is a general description of the layers provided and a more technical description can be found in Table 1 (see "Ressources" section below): 1. NBR and dNBR. All these values are multiplied by 1000. The value of dNBR represents the value obtained for NBRpre - NBRpost. It is calculated for each pixel that was classified as a fire in CanLaD, according to the corrected year (see cjfr-2020-0353suppla). 2. Year of fire. The fire years detected in CanLaD (Guindon et al. 2018) was corrected using different fire databases, this layer contains the correct year. (see cjfr-2020-0353suppla) 3. Julian Days of the Fire, based on various high-resolution products. However, this variable is only available from 1989 onwards. 4. Presence of salvage logging one year after the fire. Classification of satellite images detecting scarified soils (see cjfr-2020-0353suppld). 5. Pre-fire forest attributes: Pre-fire forest attributes values were calculated for median mosaics, from 1985 to 2000. These attributes values were derived from NFI (national forest inventory) photo-plot attributes and were spatialized. Pre-fire attribute values were created to stratify the analyses (see cjfr-2020-0353supplc). The predicted variables are as follows: • Canopy density in percent. • Predicted living biomass in tonnes per hectare. • Percentage coniferous biomass proportion of total biomass. • Percentage hardwood biomass proportion of total biomass. • Percentage unknown species biomass proportion of total biomass. Note, as unknown species are found especially in northern areas, they are considered coniferous for the purpose of the article. 6. Missing remote sensing data, one year after the fire. The estimation of burned severity needs NBR data (NBRpost) in the next year after fire occurrences. NBRpost is available for 91% of the cases, but for the remaining 9%, no data were available due to the presence of clouds. For these cases, satellite data from the years following the fire were used with a regression radiometry correction. This gives values to missing data for year following the fire. This layer flags the areas that have derived data. The values of 1= one year after the fire (no regression), 2= two years after the fire (regression), 3= three years after the fire (regression) and 4= four years after the fire (no regression, set as missing data). (see cjfr-2020-0353supplb). 7. Areas with more than one fire disturbance between 1985 and 2015 (1=one single disturbance, 2=two or more, 3=three or more). ## Data citation: 1. Guindon, L., Villemaire P., Manka F., Dorion H. , Skakun R., St-Amant R., Gauthier S. : Canada Landsat Burned Severity (CanLaBS): a Canada-wide Landsat-based 30-m resolution product of burned severity since 1985 https://doi.org/10.23687/b1f61b7e-4ba6-4244-bc79-c1174f2f92cd 2. The creation, the validation and the limits of the CanLaBS product are describe in the text and supplementary material: Guindon, L., Gauthier, S., Manka, F., Parisien, MA, Whitman, E., Bernier, P., Beaudoin, A., Villemaire P., Skakun R. Trends in wildfire burn severity across Canada, 1985 to 2015 https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2020-0353 ## References cited: 1. Guindon, L., Villemaire, P., St-Amant, R., Bernier, P.Y., Beaudoin, A., Caron, F., Bonucelli, M., and Dorion, H. 2017. Canada Landsat Disturbance (CanLaD): a Canada-wide Landsat-based 30m resolution product of fire and harvest detection and attribution since 1984. https://doi.org/10.23687/add1346b-f632-4eb9-a83d-a662b38655ad 2. Guindon, L., Bernier, P., Gauthier, S., Stinson, G., Villemaire, P., & Beaudoin, A. (2018). Missing forest cover gains in boreal forests explained. Ecosphere, 9(1), e02094. https://doi.org//10.1002/ecs2.2094 3. Masek, J.G., Vermote, E.F., Saleous N.E., Wolfe, R., Hall, F.G., Huemmrich, K.F., Gao, F., Kutler, J., and Lim, T-K. (2006). A Landsat surface reflectance dataset for North America, 1990–2000. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 3(1):68-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2005.857030. 4. Vermote, E., Justice, C., Claverie, M., & Franch, B. (2016). Preliminary analysis of the performance of the Landsat 8/OLI land surface reflectance product. Remote Sensing of Environment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.008.

  • In 2015, the Earth Observation Team of the Science and Technology Branch (STB) at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) repeated the process of generating annual crop inventory digital maps using satellite imagery to for all of Canada, in support of a national crop inventory. A Decision Tree (DT) based methodology was applied using optical (Landsat-8) and radar (RADARSAT-2) based satellite images, and having a final spatial resolution of 30m. In conjunction with satellite acquisitions, ground-truth information was provided by provincial crop insurance companies and point observations from the BC Ministry of Agriculture and our regional AAFC colleagues.

  • The 1 cm resolution vegetation digital height model was extracted using a bare earth model and digital surface model (DSM) derived from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery acquired from a single day survey on July 28th 2016, in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. The mapping product covers 525m2 and was produced by Canada Centre for Remote Sensing /Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation. The UAV survey was completed in collaboration with the Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) for northern vegetation monitoring research. For more information, refer to our current Arctic vegetation research: Fraser et al; "UAV photogrammetry for mapping vegetation in the low-Arctic" Arctic Science, 2016, 2(3): 79-102. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/AS-2016-0008

  • This data product represents the biweekly volumetric soil moisture (percent saturated soil) for the surface layer, expressed as a difference from the long term average. The average is calculated from all available years for each location and each time period, based on the length of the satellite data record. Values higher than zero represent areas that are wetter than the long term average, and areas lower than zero represent areas drier than the long term average. The data is produced from passive microwave satellite data collected by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and converted to soil moisture using version 6.20 of the SMOS soil moisture processor. The data are produced by the European Space Agency and obtained under a Category 1 proposal for Level 2 soil moisture data. The data are gridded to a resolution of 0.25 degrees. Data quality flags have been applied to remove areas where rainfall is present during the acquisition, where snow cover is detected and when Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is above an acceptable threshold.

  • This data series represents the volumetric soil moisture (percent saturated soil) for the surface layer (<5 cm). The data is created daily and is averaged for the ISO standard week and month. The data is produced from passive microwave satellite data collected by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and converted to soil moisture using version 6.20 of the SMOS soil moisture processor. The data are produced by the European Space Agency and obtained under a Category 1 proposal for Level 2 soil moisture data. The data are gridded to a resolution of 0.25 degrees. Data quality flags have been applied to remove areas where rainfall is present during the acquisition, where snow cover is detected and when Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is above an acceptable threshold.