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  • Seamounts and knolls are ‘undersea mountains’, the former rising more than 1000 m from the seafloor. These features provide important habitats for aquatic predators, demersal deep-sea fish and benthic invertebrates. However most seamounts have not been surveyed and their numbers and locations are not well known. Previous efforts to locate and quantify seamounts have used relatively coarse bathymetry grids. Here we use global bathymetric data at 30 arc-second resolution to identify seamounts and knolls. We identify 33,452 seamounts and 138,412 knolls, representing the largest global set of identified seamounts and knolls to date. We compare estimated seamount numbers, locations, and depths with validation sets of seamount data from New Zealand and Azores. This comparison indicates the method we apply finds 94% of seamounts, but may overestimate seamount numbers along ridges and in areas where faulting and seafloor spreading creates highly complex topography. The seamounts and knolls identified herein are significantly geographically biased towards areas surveyed with shipbased soundings. As only 6.5% of the ocean floor has been surveyed with soundings it is likely that new seamounts will be uncovered as surveying improves. Seamount habitats constitute approximately 4.7% of the ocean floor, whilst knolls cover 16.3%. Regional distribution of these features is examined, and we find a disproportionate number of productive knolls, with a summit depth of o1.5 km, located in the Southern Ocean. Less than 2% of seamounts are within marine protected areas and the majority of these are located within exclusive economic zones with few on the High Seas. The database of seamounts and knolls resulting from this study will be a useful resource for researchers and conservation planners. Reference: Yesson, C., et al., The global distribution of seamounts based on 30 arc seconds bathymetry data. Deep-Sea Research I (2011

  • Defines the area covered by the the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) working group of the Arctic Council. Each Arctic Council country was responsible for defining their Arctic boundary.

  • This group of maps, which includes the CanMatrix and CanTopo collections, is now a legacy product that is no longer maintained. It may not meet current government standards. Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan) topographic raster maps provide a representation of the topographic phenomena of the Canadian landmass. Several editions of paper maps have been produced over time in order to offer improved products compared to their predecessors in terms of quality and the most up to date information possible. The georeferenced maps can be used in a Geographic Information System (GIS). In all cases, they accurately represent the topographical data available for the date indicated (validity date). The combination of CanMatrix and CanTopo data provides complete national coverage. • CanMatrix - Print Ready: Raster maps produced by scanning topographic maps at scales from 1:25 000 to 1:1 000 000. This product is not georeferenced. Validity dates: 1944 to 2005 (1980 on average). Available formats: PDF and TIFF • CanMatrix - Georeferenced: Raster maps produced by scanning topographic maps at scales of 1:50 000 and 1:250 000. These maps are georeferenced according to the 1983 North American Reference System (NAD 83). Validity dates: 1944 to 2005 (1980 on average). Available format: GeoTIFF • CanTopo: Digital raster maps produced mainly from the GeoBase initiative, NRCan digital topographic data, and other sources. Approximately 2,234 datasets (maps) at scale of 1:50 000, primarily covering northern Canada, are available. CanTopo datasets in GeoPDF and GeoTIFF format are georeferenced according to the 1983 North American Reference System (NAD 83). Validity dates: 1946 to 2012 (2007 on average). Available formats: PDF, GeoPDF, TIFF and GeoTIFF

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    Smásvæði Ísland er dreifbýlt land, en þéttbýlt á höfuðborgarsvæðinu. Hefðbundin skipting landsins í landsvæði og sveitarfélög býður ekki upp á samanburðarhæf svæði hvað varðar hagskýrslugerð. Hagstofan hefur því aukið við flokkunarkerfi fyrir hagskýrslusvæði með því að bæta við smásvæðum sem hafa að meðaltali 1.700 til 1.800 íbúa. Smásvæðin mynda fimmta stigið í flokkunarkerfi, með því að hluta talningarsvæðin frekar niður. Alls eru smásvæðin 206 með rúmlega 1.700 manns meðalíbúafjölda, og íbúafjöldanum haldið á bilinu 900 til 3.500 manns, en sem næst meðaltalinu. Þrepin í flokkunarkerfinu eru þessi. 1 - Ísland allt 2 - Tvö hagskýrslusvæði (NUTS3) – höfuðborgarsvæði og landsbyggð 3 - Fjórir landshlutar – tveir á höfuðborgarsvæðinu og tveir á landsbyggðinni 4 - Alls 42 talningarsvæði – 13 í Reykjavík, 11 í Nágrenni Reykjavíkur, 9 á Suðursvæði og 9 á Norðursvæði. 5 - Alls 206 smásvæði – hverju talningarsvæði skipt upp í 2 til 11 smásvæði. Með smásvæðaskiptingunni verður mögulegt að birta ítarlegar hagskýrslur fyrir smærri svæði en áður án þess að þurfa að sleppa úr svæðum eða eyða tölum vegna fámennis. Smásvæðin eru skilgreind vegna þarfa manntalsins 2021, en einnig hefur verið gerð sérstök útgáfa fyrir manntalið 2011, með 183 svæðum sem fylgja að mestu sömu mörkum. Smásvæðaflokkunin var unnin í samstarfi við Byggðastofnun, með fjárhagslegum stuðningi frá Evrópusambandinu. Þá naut Hagstofan aðstoðar Landmælinga Íslands ásamt afnotum af gögnum frá Landmælingum og Mílu ehf. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Minor Statistical Output Areas (MSOA) Due to the sparsely populated country and huge differences in the population sizes of the administrative units, Statistics Iceland has added a new small area level to the hierarchical regional classification in preparation for the 2021 Census. The new level is labeled as Minor Statistical Output Areas (MSOA). There are in total 206 MSOA defined, with an average population in the range 1,700 to 1,800 persons and no area having less population than 900 persons, and no area exceeding 3,500. There are 5 steps in the Regional classification: 1 - Iceland 2 - Two NUTS3 Statistical regions 3 - Four Statistical Regions – 2 in the capital region and 2 in the rural areas 4 - Forty-two (42) Statistical Output Areas (SOA) – 42 areas, 13 in Reykjavik, 11 in the Reykjavik surrounding areas, 9 in the South Region, and 9 in the North region 5 - Two hundred and six (206) Minor Statistical Output Areas (MSOA) –each SOA partitioned further into 2 to 11 MSOA. With the help of the Minor Statistical Output Areas Statistics Iceland is able to publish detailed statistics for smaller areas than previously possible without skipping areas or deleting data due to disclosure concerns. While the MSOA are defined in preparation for the 2021 Census of the Population and Housing, a special version has been developed for classifying data in the 2011 Census, with 183 MSOA, which are but for 23 areas identical to the 2021 version. The MSOA were developed with financial aid from the European Commission, in cooperation with the Icelandic Regional Development Institution and the assistance of the National Land Survey of Iceland and Míla ehf.

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    Samgöngulagið inniheldur bæði línu- og flákalag. Línulagið sýnir vegakerfi landsins en í flákalaginu eru flugvellirnir.

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    Vatnafarið skiptist í þrjú lög: línur, fláka og punkta.

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    Strandlínulagið inniheldur bæði línu- og flákalag og er strandlína landsins sýnd auk eyja og skerja.Í fitjuklasanum is50v_strandlina_linur er strandlína landsins, eyja og skerja sýnd. Hægt er að sjá hvort línan tilheyrir eyjum eða skerjum. Í laginu is50v_strandlina_flakar er strandlína landsins, eyja og skerjar sýnd.

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    AROME-Arctic is a convection-permitting deterministic atmosphere ensemble model covering Svalbard, the Norwegian and Barents Seas. It is run in operational routine at Meteorologisk institutt (MET Norway). The model code is the same framework as MEPS; based on HARMONIE cy38h1.2. HARMONIE (Hirlam Aladin Regional/Meso-scale Operational NWP In Europe) is a cooperation including Meteo-France and their Aladin partners, the Hirlam group and also ECMWF with their IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) model. HARMONIE-AROME is a particular configuration of the Harmonie system suited for the highest resolutions. The version currently used is based on cycle 38h1.2. This model version is described in Muller et al. (2017). A major upgrade from cy38h1.2 to cy40h1.1 for AROME-Arctic is planned by 3rd quarter 2017. Cy40h1.1 is described by Bengtsson et al. (2017) and the most important change is a new treatment of the turbulent processes giving less low clouds and fog in the latest model version. AROME-Arctic has horizontal resolution of 2.5 km and has 65 vertical levels. It is ran up to 66 hours four times daily (00,06,12,18) with three-hourly cycling for data assimilation (3D-VAR). Lateral boundary data is from ECMWF HRES. The model system is routinely evaluated against observed weather and quarterly summaries for Norway are published at https://met.no/Forskning/Publikasjoner/MET_info/ From termin time (00, 06, 12 and 18UTC) we use XXhr and XXminutes to receive and process all available observations, approximately XX minutes to run the AROME-Arctic system on the High Performance Computer capacity and the rest of the time to post-process forecast parameters further and process and distribute all data.

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    Smásvæði Ísland er dreifbýlt land, en þéttbýlt á höfuðborgarsvæðinu. Hefðbundin skipting landsins í landsvæði og sveitarfélög býður ekki upp á samanburðarhæf svæði hvað varðar hagskýrslugerð. Hagstofan hefur því aukið við flokkunarkerfi fyrir hagskýrslusvæði með því að bæta við smásvæðum sem hafa að meðaltali 1.700 til 1.800 íbúa. Smásvæðin mynda fimmta stigið í flokkunarkerfi, með því að hluta talningarsvæðin frekar niður. Alls eru smásvæðin 206 með rúmlega 1.700 manns meðalíbúafjölda, og íbúafjöldanum haldið á bilinu 900 til 3.500 manns, en sem næst meðaltalinu. Þrepin í flokkunarkerfinu eru þessi. 1 - Ísland allt 2 - Tvö hagskýrslusvæði (NUTS3) – höfuðborgarsvæði og landsbyggð 3 - Fjórir landshlutar – tveir á höfuðborgarsvæðinu og tveir á landsbyggðinni 4 - Alls 42 talningarsvæði – 13 í Reykjavík, 11 í Nágrenni Reykjavíkur, 9 á Suðursvæði og 9 á Norðursvæði. 5 - Alls 206 smásvæði – hverju talningarsvæði skipt upp í 2 til 11 smásvæði. Með smásvæðaskiptingunni verður mögulegt að birta ítarlegar hagskýrslur fyrir smærri svæði en áður án þess að þurfa að sleppa úr svæðum eða eyða tölum vegna fámennis. Smásvæðin eru skilgreind vegna þarfa manntalsins 2021, en einnig hefur verið gerð sérstök útgáfa fyrir manntalið 2011, með 183 svæðum sem fylgja að mestu sömu mörkum. Smásvæðaflokkunin var unnin í samstarfi við Byggðastofnun, með fjárhagslegum stuðningi frá Evrópusambandinu. Þá naut Hagstofan aðstoðar Landmælinga Íslands ásamt afnotum af gögnum frá Landmælingum og Mílu ehf. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Minor Statistical Output Areas (MSOA) Due to the sparsely populated country and huge differences in the population sizes of the administrative units, Statistics Iceland has added a new small area level to the hierarchical regional classification in preparation for the 2021 Census. The new level is labeled as Minor Statistical Output Areas (MSOA). There are in total 206 MSOA defined, with an average population in the range 1,700 to 1,800 persons and no area having less population than 900 persons, and no area exceeding 3,500. There are 5 steps in the Regional classification: 1 - Iceland 2 - Two NUTS3 Statistical regions 3 - Four Statistical Regions – 2 in the capital region and 2 in the rural areas 4 - Forty-two (42) Statistical Output Areas (SOA) – 42 areas, 13 in Reykjavik, 11 in the Reykjavik surrounding areas, 9 in the South Region, and 9 in the North region 5 - Two hundred and six (206) Minor Statistical Output Areas (MSOA) –each SOA partitioned further into 2 to 11 MSOA. With the help of the Minor Statistical Output Areas Statistics Iceland is able to publish detailed statistics for smaller areas than previously possible without skipping areas or deleting data due to disclosure concerns. While the MSOA are defined in preparation for the 2021 Census of the Population and Housing, a special version has been developed for classifying data in the 2011 Census, with 183 MSOA, which are but for 23 areas identical to the 2021 version. The MSOA were developed with financial aid from the European Commission, in cooperation with the Icelandic Regional Development Institution and the assistance of the National Land Survey of Iceland and Míla ehf.

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    ELF Elevation (EL) Iceland is one of 12 themes in the European Location Project (ELF). The purpose of ELF is to create harmonised cross-border, cross-theme and cross-resolution pan-European reference data from national contributions. The goal is to provide INSPIRE-compliant data for Europe. A description of the ELF (European Location Project) is here: http://www.elfproject.eu/content/overview Encoding: INSPIRE version 4