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The 1 cm resolution digital surface model (DSM) was created from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery acquired from a single day survey, July 28th 2016, in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Five control points taken from a Global Differential Positioning System were positioned in the corners and the center of the vegetation survey. The DSM covering 525m2 was produced by Canada Centre for Remote Sensing /Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation. The UAV survey was completed in collaboration with the Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) for northern vegetation monitoring research. For more information, refer to our current Arctic vegetation research: Fraser et al; "UAV photogrammetry for mapping vegetation in the low-Arctic" Arctic Science, 2016, 2(3): 79-102. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/AS-2016-0008
Topographic maps produced by Natural Resources Canada conform to the National Topographic System (NTS) of Canada. Indexes are available in three standard scales: 1:1,000,000, 1:250,000 and 1:50,000. The area covered by a given mapsheet is determined by its latitude and longitude. 1:1,000,000 mapsheets are identified by a combination of three numbers (e.g. 098). 1:250,000 mapsheets are identified by a combination of numbers, and letters ranging from A through P (e.g. 098C). Sixteen smaller segments (1 to 16) form blocks used for 1:50,000 mapping (e.g. 098C03).
This data publication contains two collections of raster maps of forest attributes across Canada, the first collection for year 2001, and the second for year 2011. The 2001 collection is actually an improved version of an earlier set of maps produced also for year 2001 (Beaudoin et al 2014, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0401) that is itself available through the web site “http://nfi-nfis.org”. Each collection contains 93 maps of forest attributes: four land cover classes, 11 continuous stand-level structure variables such as age, volume, biomass and height, and 78 continuous values of percent composition for tree species or genus. The mapping was done at a spatial resolution of 250m along the MODIS grid. Briefly the method uses forest polygon information from the first version of photoplots database from Canada’s National Forest Inventory as reference data, and the non-parametric k-nearest neighbors procedure (kNN) to create the raster maps of forest attributes. The approach uses a set of 20 predictive variables that include MODIS spectral reflectance data, as well as topographic and climate data. Estimates are carried out on target pixels across all Canada treed landmass that are stratified as either forest or non-forest with 25% forest cover used as a threshold. Forest cover information was extracted from the global forest cover product of Hansen et al (2013) (DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244693). The mapping methodology and resultant datasets were intended to address the discontinuities across provincial borders created by their large differences in forest inventory standards. Analysis of residuals has failed to reveal residual discontinuities across provincial boundaries in the current raster dataset, meaning that our goal of providing discontinuity-free maps has been reached. The dataset was developed specifically to address strategic issues related to phenomena that span multiple provinces such as fire risk, insect spread and drought. In addition, the use of the kNN approach results in the maintenance of a realistic covariance structure among the different variable maps, an important property when the data are extracted to be used in models of ecosystem processes. For example, within each pixel, the composition values of all tree species add to 100%. * Details on the product development and validation can be found in the following publication: Beaudoin, A., Bernier, P.Y., Villemaire, P., Guindon, L., Guo, X.-J. 2017. Tracking forest attributes across Canada between 2001 and 2011 using a kNN mapping approach applied to MODIS imagery, Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48: 85–93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2017-0184 * Please cite this dataset as: Beaudoin A, Bernier PY, Villemaire P, Guindon L, Guo XJ. 2017. Species composition, forest properties and land cover types across Canada’s forests at 250m resolution for 2001 and 2011. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Quebec, Canada. https://doi.org/10.23687/ec9e2659-1c29-4ddb-87a2-6aced147a990 * This dataset contains these NFI forest attributes: ## LAND COVER : landbase vegetated, landbase non-vegetated, landcover treed, landcover non-treed ## TREE STRUCTURE : total above ground biomass, tree branches biomass, tree foliage biomass, stem bark biomass, stem wood biomass, total dead trees biomass, stand age, crown closure, tree stand heigth, merchantable volume, total volume ## TREE SPECIES : abies amabilis (amabilis fir), abies balsamea (balsam fir), abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir), abies spp. (unidentified fir), acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple), acer negundo (manitoba maple, box-elder), acer pensylvanicum (striped maple), acer rubrum (red maple), acer saccharinum (silver maple), acer saccharum (sugar maple), acer spicatum (mountain maple), acer spp. (unidentified maple), alnus rubra (red alder), alnus spp. (unidentified alder), arbutus menziesii (arbutus), betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch), betula papyrifera (white birch), betula populifolia (gray birch), betula spp. (unidentified birch), carpinus caroliniana (blue-beech), carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory), chamaecyparis nootkatensis (yellow-cedar), fagus grandifolia (american beech), fraxinus americana (white ash), fraxinus nigra (black ash), fraxinus pennsylvanica (red ash), juglans cinerea (butternut), juglans nigra (black walnut), juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar), larix laricina (tamarack), larix lyallii (subalpine larch), larix occidentalis (western larch), larix spp. (unidentified larch), malus spp. (unidentified apple), ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hop-hornbeam), picea abies (norway spruce), picea engelmannii (engelmann spruce), picea glauca (white spruce), picea mariana (black spruce), picea rubens (red spruce), picea sitchensis (sitka spruce), picea spp. (unidentified spruce), pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine), pinus banksiana (jack pine), pinus contorta (lodgepole pine), pinus monticola (western white pine), pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine), pinus resinosa (red pine), pinus spp. (unidentified pine), pinus strobus (eastern white pine), pinus sylvestris (scots pine), populus balsamifera (balsam poplar), populus grandidentata (largetooth aspen), populus spp. (unidentified poplar), populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood), prunus pensylvanica (pin cherry), prunus serotina (black cherry), pseudotsuga menziesii (douglas-fir), quercus alba (white oak), quercus macrocarpa (bur oak), quercus rubra (red oak), quercus spp. (unidentified oak), salix spp. (unidentified willow), sorbus americana (american mountain-ash), thuja occidentalis (eastern white-cedar), thuja plicata (western redcedar), tilia americana (basswood), tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock), tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock), tsuga mertensiana (mountain hemlock), tsuga spp. (unidentified hemlock), ulmus americana (white elm), unidentified needleaf, unidentified broadleaf, broadleaf species, needleaf species, unknown species
This is a Mosaic of Canada which is made from 121 images captured by Canadian satellite RADARSAT-2. These images were acquired from May 1, 2013 to June 1, 2013. The color variation represents the changes in soil texture, roughness and the level of soil moisture. (Credit: RADARSAT-2 Data and Products © MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (2013) - All Rights Reserved. RADARSAT is an official mark of the Canadian Space Agency.)
The Canadian long term satellite data record (LTDR) derived from 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data was produced by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing (CCRS). Processing included: geolocation, calibration, and compositing using Earth Observation Data Manager (Latifovic et al. 2005), cloud screening (Khlopenkov and Trishchenko, 2006), BRDF correction (Latifovic et. al., 2003), atmosphere and other corrections as described in Cihlar et. al. (2004). For temporal analysis of vegetation cross-sensor correction of Latifovic et al. (2012) is advised. Data collected by the AVHRR instrument on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 9,11,14,16,17,18 and 19 satellites were used to generate Canada-wide 1-km 10-day AVHRR composites. Data are available starting in 1985. It is important to note that there are three types of AVHRR sensors: (i) AVHRR-1 flown onboard TIROS-N, NOAA-6, NOAA-8, and NOAA-10; (ii) AVHRR-2 flown onboard NOAA-7, NOAA-9, NOAA-11, NOAA-12, and NOAA-14; and (iii) AVHRR-3 currently operational onboard NOAA-15, NOAA-16, NOAA-17, NOAA-18 and NOAA-19. The AVHRR-1 has four channels, AVHRR-2 has five channels and the AVHRR-3 has six channels, although only five channels of AVHRR-3 can be operational at any one time. As such, channels 3A (1.6 m) and 3B (3.7 m) work interchangeably. The processing procedure was designed to minimize artefacts in AVHRR composite images. There are thirty six 10-day image composites per year. The following three processing levels are provided: P1) top of atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature, P2) reflectance at surface and surface temperature and P3) reflectance at surface normalized to a common viewing geometry (BRDF normalization). The processing level P1 and P2 are provided for all 36 composites while level P3 is provided for 21 composites from April – October.
Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensors were used to generate the circa 2010 Mosaic of Canada at 30 m spatial resolution. All scenes were processed to Standard Terrain Correction Level 1T by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Further processing performed by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing included conversion of sensor measurements to top of atmosphere reflectance, cloud and cloud shadow detection, re-projection, selection of best measurements, mosaic generation ,noise removal and quality control. To provide a clear sky measurement for each location in Canada, data from the years 2009, 2010, and 2011 were used, but 2010 was preferentially selected. Bands 3 (0.63-0.69 µm), 4 (0.76-0.90 µm), 5 (1.55-1.75 µm), and 7 (2.08-2.35 µm) are provided in this version as significant atmosphere effects strongly limit the quality of the blue (0.45-0.52 µm) and green (0.52-0.60 µm) bands. Multi-criteria compositing was used for the selection of the most representative pixel. For ETM+ onboard Landsat 7 a scan line malfunction caused missing lines of data in all scenes collected after May 2003. Atmosphere and target variability between scenes cause these lines to have significant radiometric differences in some cases. A Fourier transformation approach was applied to correct this occurrence. This mosaic was developed for land cover and biophysical mapping applications across Canada. Other applications of these data are also possible, but should consider the temporal and spectral limitations of the product. Research to enhance the spatial, spectral and temporal aspects are in development for future versions of moderate resolution products from historical Landsat sensors, Landsat 8, and Sentinel 2 data.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS ) is one of the most sophisticated sensors that is used in a wide range of applications related to land, ocean and atmosphere. It has 36 spectral channels with spatial resolution varying between 250 m and 1 km at nadir. MODIS channels 1 (B1, visible) and 2 (B2, near infrared) are available at 250 m spatial resolution, an additional five channels for terrestrial applications (bands B3 to B7) are available at 500 m spatial resolution, the other twenty-nine channels not included in this data set capture images with a spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS record begins in March 2000 and extends to present with daily measurements over the globe. This level 3 product for Canada was created from the following original Level 1 (1B) MODIS data (collection 5): a) MOD02QKM - Level 1B 250 m swath data, 5 min granules; b ) MOD02HKM - level 1B , 500 m swath data, 5 min granules; c) MOD03 - level 1 geolocation information, 1 km swath data, 5 min granules. All these data are available from the DAAC Earth Observing System Data Gateway (NASA http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/data/search.html). The terrestrial channels MODIS (B3 to B7) at 500 m spatial resolution were reduced to 250 m with an adaptive regression system and normalization described in Trishchenko et al. (2006, 2009), and the data were mapped using a Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC ) projection (Khlopenkov et al., 2008). These data were combined to form pan-Canadian images using a technique for detection of clear sky, clouds and cloud shadows with a maximum interval of 10 days (Luo et al., 2008). Atmospheric and sun-sensor geometry corrections have not been applied. For each date, data include forward and backward scattering observations as separate files. This allows data to be optimized for a given application. For general use, data from either forward or backward scattering or both should be used. Future release of the MODIS time series will correct the forward and backward scattering geometry to provide a single best observation for each pixel.
The 0.34 cm resolution orthomosaic was created from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery acquired from a single day survey, July 28th 2016, in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Five control points taken from a Global Differential Positioning System were positioned in the corners and the center of the vegetation survey. The orthomosaic covering 525m2 was produced by Canada Centre for Remote Sensing /Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation. The UAV survey was completed in collaboration with the Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) for northern vegetation monitoring research. For more information, refer to our current Arctic vegetation research: Fraser et al; "UAV photogrammetry for mapping vegetation in the low-Arctic" Arctic Science, 2016, 2(3): 79-102. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/AS-2016-0008.
This publication contains a raster maps at 250 m resolution of the merchantable volume (m3/ha) of the mature Canadian forest available for harvesting in the next 20 years (2011 to 2031). The maps were produced from remote sensing products at a spatial resolution of 250 m on the MODIS pixel grid and 30 m on the Landsat pixel grid. More specifically, we used forest attribute data at the 250 m pixel for the years 2001 and 2011 (Beaudoin et al 2014 and 2018) combined with forest cover changes for the years 1985 to 2015 at 30 m (Guindon et al. 2017 and 2018). The map of mature forests in Canada was prepared at the forest management unit (FMU) level and therefore exclude private lands. To be considered mature (i.e. available for cutting in the next 20 years), the forest pixels of Beaudoin et al. (2018) was to have a merchantable volume per ha equal to or greater than 80% of the average merchantable volume of the pixels that were harvested between 2001 and 2011 per forest management unit. A scientific article gives additional details on the methodology: Barrette J, Paré D, Manka F, Guindon L, Bernier P, Titus B. 2018. Forecasting the spatial distribution of logging residues in Canada’s managed forests. Can. J. For. Res. 48: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/cjfr-2018-0080 Reference for this dataset: Barrette J, Paré D, Manka F, Guindon L, Bernier P, Titus B. 2018. Forecasting the spatial distribution of logging residues in Canada’s managed forests. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Quebec, Canada. https://doi.org/10.23687/dd94871a-9a20-47f5-825b-768518140f35
The VMap1 collection is a legacy product that is no longer supported. It may not meet current government standards. VMap1 is a vector digital topographic reference product developed by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and The Department of National Defence (DND). VMap1 complies with international military specifications vector map, level 1. There are 24 VMap1 libraries covering the Canadian territory. The National Topographic Data Base (NTDB) at scale of 1:250 000 is the main source used to populate the Canadian VMap1 Libraries. Administrative Boundaries from Statistics Canada are used to add international borders, provincial and Indian reserve limits. NRCan paper maps at scale of 1:250 000 and the information in the Canadian Geographical Names Data Base (CGNDB) are used to capture the names. The JOG (Joint Operations Graphic) paper maps were used by DND for the production of libraries 37, 38 and 66. Topographic features mainly from the NTDB have not been updated. VMap1 is published once and no product revision is planned.