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Geoscientific information

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  • The map displays bedrock formations at or near the surface of the land, on the sea floor above the continental crust that forms the Canadian landmass, and oceanic crust surrounding the landmass. The bedrock units are grouped and coloured according to geological age and composition. The colours of offshore units and oceanic crust are paler and more generalized than those on land, although the constituent units offshore are still easily discernible from their dashed boundaries. This colour design, coupled with the use of a white buffer zone at the coast allows the coastline of Canada to be readily distinguished and still show the grand geological architecture of the Canadian landmass. The map also shows major faults that have disrupted the Earth's crust, onshore and offshore, and a variety of special geological features such as kimberlite pipes, which locally contain diamonds, impact structures suspected to have been caused by meteorites, and extinct and active spreading centres in the surrounding oceans.

  • The compilation represents publicly available reports of geochronological information for Canada. This includes federal, provincial and territorial government publications and reports, university theses, books and journals. Current coverage is limited to those areas that have been the target of recent past compilation efforts, with other areas and updates being included as they become ready. Users should be aware that the compilation may not include all available data for a given area. Every effort is made to report the ages without reinterpreting the original authors' intent. However, care has also been taken to highlight the salient features of the data by which the end-user can make initial judgment on the data robustness. Users are cautioned that because of space limitations and the necessary summarization of often complex datasets, that the original publication should be consulted to verify age interpretations and their rationale. Data may be extracted by the user in tab-delimited text format.

  • The "Canadian Database of Geochemical Surveys" has two long-term goals. Firstly, it aims to catalogue all of the regional geochemical surveys that have been carried out across Canada, beginning in the 1950s. Secondly, it aims to make the raw data from those surveys available in a standardised format. Over 1,300 surveys have been catalogued. Of these, the raw data for over 150 have been converted to a standardised format.

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    40 Class - Canadian Ecological Domain Classification from Satellite Data. Satellite derived data including 1) topography, 2) landscape productivity based on photosynthetic activity, and 3) land cover were used as inputs to create an environmental regionalization of the over 10 million km2 of Canada’s terrestrial land base. The outcomes of this clustering consists of three main outputs. An initial clustering of 100 classes was generated using a two-stage multivariate classification process. Next, an agglomerative hierarchy using a log-likelihood distance measure was applied to create a 40 and then a 14 class regionalization, aimed to meaningfully group ecologically similar components of Canada's terrestrial landscape. For more information (including a graphical illustration of the cluster hierarchy) and to cite this data please use: Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Iwanicka, D. 2009. An environmental domain classification of Canada using earth observation data for biodiversity assessment. Ecological Informatics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pp. 8-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2008.09.005. ( Coops et al. 2009).

  • High resolution forest change for Canada (Change Type) 1985-2011 The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 27 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985–2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 ). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016; http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17538947.2016.1187673). The data available is, 1. a binary change/no-change; 2. Change year; and, 3. Change type. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.035. https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • Forest Basal Area 2015 Cross-sectional area of tree stems at breast height. The sum of the cross-sectional area (i.e. basal area) of each tree in square metres in a plot, divided by the area of the plot (ha) (units = m2ha). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • High resolution forest change for Canada (Change Year) 1985-2011 The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 27 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985–2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 ). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016; http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17538947.2016.1187673). The data available is, 1. a binary change/no-change; 2. Change year; and, 3. Change type. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.035. https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • Forest Percentage Above 2m 2015 Percentage of first returns above 2 m (%). Represents canopy cover. Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • The minimum temperature layer shows the modeled minimum temperature [°C] at a height of 100 m above ground level, at each grid point, over the three year period from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Values are presented in bins with ranges of 1.5 °C each. Further details including data for individual years can be obtained by clicking on the dot representing the grid point location.

  • The wind power density layer shows the modeled wind power density [W/m2] at a height of 100 m above ground level, at each grid point, averaged over the three year period from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Values are presented in bins with ranges of 0.5 W/m2 each. Further details including data at different heights, and for individual years, can be obtained by clicking on the dot representing the grid point location.