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  • The compilation represents publicly available reports of geochronological information for Canada. This includes federal, provincial and territorial government publications and reports, university theses, books and journals. Current coverage is limited to those areas that have been the target of recent past compilation efforts, with other areas and updates being included as they become ready. Users should be aware that the compilation may not include all available data for a given area. Every effort is made to report the ages without reinterpreting the original authors' intent. However, care has also been taken to highlight the salient features of the data by which the end-user can make initial judgment on the data robustness. Users are cautioned that because of space limitations and the necessary summarization of often complex datasets, that the original publication should be consulted to verify age interpretations and their rationale. Data may be extracted by the user in tab-delimited text format.

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    The Manitoba Detailed Soil Survey dataset series at a scale of 1:100 000 consists of geo-referenced soil polygons with linkages to attribute data found in the associated Component File (CMP), Soil Names File (SNF) and Soil Layer File (SLF). Together, these datasets describe the spatial distribution of soils and associated landscapes for nearly all agricultural areas in southern Manitoba, as well as some parts of northern and eastern Manitoba.

  • High resolution forest change for Canada (Change Year) 1985-2011 The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 27 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985–2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 ). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016; http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17538947.2016.1187673). The data available is, 1. a binary change/no-change; 2. Change year; and, 3. Change type. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.035. https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

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    Dynamic Habitat Index. (2000-2005) Satellite derived estimates of photosynthetically active radiation can be obtained from satellites such as MODIS. Knowledge of the land cover allows for calculation the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is absorbed by vegetation. This fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by vegetation describes rate at which carbon dioxide and energy from sunlight are assimilated into carbohydrates during photosynthesis of plant tissues. The summation of carbon assimilated by the vegetation canopy over time yields the landscape's gross primary productivity. Daily MODIS imagery is the basis for periodic composites and monthly data products. Over the 6 year period from 2000-2005, we calculate the annual average cumulative total of 72 monthly fPAR measurements, to describe the integrated annual vegetative production of the landscape, the integrated average annual minimum monthly fPAR measurement, which describes the annual minimum green cover of the observed landscape, and the integrated average of the annual covariance of fPAR, which describes the seasonality of the observed landscape. We also share the combination of the annual integrated values for visualization and analysis as the Dynamic Habitat Index (with additional information in Coops et al. 2008). When using this data, please cite as: Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Duro, D.C., Han, T. and Berry, S., 2008. The development of a Canadian dynamic habitat index using multi-temporal satellite estimates of canopy light absorbance. Ecological Indicators, 8(5), pp.754-766. ( Coops et al. 2008).

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    Canada Harmonized Agriculture Forest Land Cover 2015 The harmonized land cover (HLC) map is produced from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) and Canadian Forest Service (CFS) data. The HLC product is exhaustive of all area from the northern edge of Canada’s forested ecosystems to the southern border. The land cover is following Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) categories, represents the year 2015, and is at 30-m spatial resolution. This harmonized land cover map combines two sector-driven land cover products: the Virtual Land Cover Engine or VLCE from the CFS (Hermosilla et al., 2018), and AAFC's Annual Crop Inventory or ACI (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2018). The harmonization process was conducted using a Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. The LDA model used regionalized class co-occurrences from multiple maps to generate a harmonized class label for each pixel by statistically characterizing land attributes from the class co-occurrences, using the information provided by the error matrices and semantic affinity scores. For a complete overview on the data, methods applied, and information on independent accuracy assessment, see Li et al. (2020). When using this data, please cite as: Li, Z., White, J.C., Wulder, M.A., Hermosilla, T., Davidson, A.M., Comber, A.J., 2020. Land cover harmonization using Latent Dirichlet Allocation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2020.1796131 (Open access) ( Li et al. 2020). For additional resources on the data used and methods applied, please see: Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., 2018. Disturbance-informed annual land cover classification maps of Canada’s forested ecosystems for a 29-year Landsat time series. Canadia Journal of Remote Sensing 44(1), 67-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/07038992.2018.1437719 (Open access) ( Hermosilla et al. 2018). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2018. Annual Crop Inventory [WWW Document]. URL https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/ba2645d5-4458-414d-b196-6303ac06c1c9. ( AAFC, 2018. Annual Crop Inventory ).

  • Forest Basal Area 2015 Cross-sectional area of tree stems at breast height. The sum of the cross-sectional area (i.e. basal area) of each tree in square metres in a plot, divided by the area of the plot (ha) (units = m2ha). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

  • High-resolution binary wetland map for Canada (2001-2016). Wetland map for the forested ecosystems of Canada focused on current conditions. The binary wetland data included in this product is national in scope (entirety of forested ecosystem) and represents the wall to wall characterization for 2001-2016 (see Wulder et al. 2018). This product was generated using both annual gap free composite reflectance images and annual forest change maps following the Virtual Land Cover Engine (VLCE) process (see Hermosilla et al. 2018), over the 650 million ha forested ecosystems of Canada. Elements of the VLCE classification approach are inclusion of disturbance information in the processes as well as ensuring class transitions over time are logical. Further, a Hidden Markov Model is implemented to assess individual year class likelihoods to reduce variability and possible noise in year-on-year class assignments (for instances when class likelihoods are similar). For this product, to be considered as currently a wetland a pixel must have been classified as wetland at least 80% or 13 of the 16 years between 2001 and 2016, inclusively. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, see Wulder et al. (2018). Wulder, M.A., Z. Li, E. Campbell, J.C. White, G. Hobart, T. Hermosilla, and N.C. Coops (2018). A National Assessment of Wetland Status and Trends for Canada’s Forested Ecosystems Using 33 Years of Earth Observation Satellite Data. Remote Sensing. For a detailed description of the VLCE process and the subsequently generated land cover product, including an accuracy assessment, please see Hermosilla et al. (2018).

  • Forest Lorey's Height 2015 Lorey's mean height. Average height of trees weighted by their basal area (m). Products relating the structure of Canada's forested ecosystems have been generated and made openly accessible. The shared products are based upon peer-reviewed science and relate aspects of forest structure including: (i) metrics calculated directly from the lidar point cloud with heights normalized to heights above the ground surface (e.g., canopy cover, height), and (ii) modelled inventory attributes, derived using an area-based approach generated by using co-located ground plot and ALS data (e.g., volume, biomass). Forest structure estimates were generated by combining information from lidar plots (Wulder et al. 2012) with Landsat pixel-based composites (White et al. 2014; Hermosilla et al. 2016) using a nearest neighbour imputation approach with a Random Forests-based distance metric. These products were generated for strategic-level forest monitoring information needs and are not intended to support operational-level forest management. All products have a spatial resolution of 30 m. For a detailed description of the data, methods applied, and accuracy assessment results see Matasci et al. (2018). When using this data, please cite as follows: Matasci, G., Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hobart, G.W., Bolton, D.K., Tompalski, P., Bater, C.W., 2018b. Three decades of forest structural dynamics over Canada's forested ecosystems using Landsat time-series and lidar plots. Remote Sensing of Environment 216, 697-714. Matasci et al. 2018) Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011

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    The Agricultural Region of Alberta Soil Inventory Database (AGRASID3.0) Detailed Soil Survey dataset series at a scale of 1:100 000 consists of geo-referenced soil polygons with linkages to attribute data found in the associated Component File (CMP), Soil Names File (SNF) and Soil Layer File (SLF). Together, these datasets describe the spatial distribution of soils and associated landscapes within the agricultural region of Alberta (an area of approximately 26M ha.)

  • High resolution forest change for Canada (Change Type) 1985-2011 The forest change data included in this product is national in scope (entire forested ecosystem) and represents the first wall-to-wall characterization of wildfire and harvest in Canada at a spatial resolution commensurate with human impacts. The information outcomes represent 27 years of stand replacing change in Canada’s forests, derived from a single, consistent spatially-explicit data source, derived in a fully automated manner. This demonstrated capacity to characterize forests at a resolution that captures human impacts is key to establishing a baseline for detailed monitoring of forested ecosystems from management and science perspectives. Time series of Landsat data were used to characterize national trends in stand replacing forest disturbances caused by wildfire and harvest for the period 1985–2011 for Canada's 650 million hectare forested ecosystems (https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 ). Landsat data has a 30m spatial resolution, so the change information is highly detailed and is commensurate with that of human impacts. These data represent annual stand replacing forest changes. The stand replacing disturbances types labeled are wildfire and harvest, with lower confidence wildfire and harvest, also shared. The distinction and sharing of lower class membership likelihoods is to indicate to users that some change events were more difficult to allocate to a change type, but are generally found to be in the correct category. For an overview on the data, image processing, and time series change detection methods applied, as well as information on independent accuracy assessment of the data, see Hermosilla et al. (2016; http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17538947.2016.1187673). The data available is, 1. a binary change/no-change; 2. Change year; and, 3. Change type. When using this data, please cite as: White, J.C., M.A. Wulder, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, and G. Hobart. (2017). A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192: 303-321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.035. https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0034425717301360 Geographic extent: Canada's forested ecosystems (~ 650 Mha) Time period: 1985–2011