Type of resources
Contact for the resource
Íslenska: Frá 2015 hefur verið opið aðgengi að hæðargögnum af Norðurheimskautinu (norður af 60°N, þar með talið af Íslandi). Gögnin hafa gengið undir nafninu ArticDEM og eru frá Polar Geospatial Center sem er staðsett í University of Minnesota (https://www.pgc.umn.edu/data/arcticdem/). Gögnin urðu til við vinnslu mikils magns af landhæðarlíkönum, flest frá 2012 en elstu gögnin eru frá 2008. Landhæðarlíkönin eru unnin úr steríópörum af gervitunglamyndum frá WorldView 1-3 og GeoEye-1. Notast var við SETSM sem er opinn hugbúnaður fyrir stafrænar myndmælingar á Bluewaters ofurtölvu University of Illinois. Hvert landhæðarlíkan hefur 2x2 m upplausn og dekkar um 18X100 km stórt svæði á jörðu. Samstarf Landmælinga Íslands, Veðurstofunnar og Polar Geospatial Center leiddi til þess að eftirfarandi aðferðir voru þróaðar til þess að vinna með gífurlegt magn gagna. Aðferðirnar eru: 1- Samræma staðsetningu allra landhæðarlíkana 2-Búa til samsett landhæðarlíkan úr öllum líkönunum með því að búa til þekju sem geymir tíma gagnanna. Hver pixill í samsetta líkaninu sem er unnið úr ArcticDEM er miðgildi allra líkana sem fyrirfinnast á svæðinu. Þar að auki: 3-Löguðum vötn >2km2 4-Bættum við lidar líkönum af jöklum úr Icelandic glaciers (Jóhanesson and others, 2013) 5-Bættum við gögnum sem safnað var með dróna úr Surtsey (Óskarsson and others, 2020) 6-Breyting úr geoíðu- í sporvöluhæði English: Since 2015, elevation data from the Arctic (north of 60°N, including Iceland) started to be openly available through the ArcticDEM project, led by the Polar Geospatial Center, University of Minnesota (https://www.pgc.umn.edu/data/arcticdem/). This data consists of a large amount of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) repeatedly acquired (multitemporal), typically from 2012-present, and the oldest data reaching back to 2008. The DEMs are derived from satellite sub-meter stereo imagery, particularly from WorldView 1-3 and GeoEye-1. The processing of the DEMs was done using SETSM, an open-source digital photogrammetric software, in the Bluewaters supercomputer (University of Ilinois). Each DEM has 2x2m resolution and a footprint of ~18x100km. In a collaborative effort between the National Land Survey of Iceland, the Icelandic Meteorological Office and the Polar Geospatial Center, we developed methods to handle and process a large amount of data available for Iceland. The methods developed consisted of: 1-Spatial adjustment of all the available DEMs, for homogeneity and consistency in the location of each individual DEM. 2-Robust mosaicking into one single DEM of Iceland, by taking advantage of the multi-temporal coverage of DEMs. Each pixel of the mosaic corresponds to a median elevation value from the possible elevations available from the ArcticDEM. In addition, we did the following corrections of the resulting mosaic: 3-Fixing of lakes >2km2 4-Combination with lidar DEMs available for Icelandic glaciers (Jóhanesson and others, 2013) 5-Combination with a drone-based survey of Surtsey (Óskarsson and others, 2020) 6-Conversion from ellipsoidal to orthometric elevations
The USGS 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) Bare Earth DEM Dynamic service is based on multi-resolution USGS DEM sources and provides dynamic functions for visualization. These functions include: Hillshade, Aspect Map, Hillshade Stretched, Multi-directional Hillshade, Slope Map, Elevation Tinted Hillshade, Contour. In addition the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) interfaces are enabled.
EuroBoundaryMap is a seamless geo-database at the scale 1:100 000 covering 55 countries. It contains geometry, names and codes of administrative and statistical units continuously updated by the members of EuroGeographics, the national mapping and cadastral authorities (NMCAs) of Europe. Updated annually. Datasets in EBM: The EBM dataset was derived from the Icelandic National Database IS 50V, which is at the scale 1: 50.000. The generalization has been applied in form of smooth polygon and simplify polygon that ensured the required resolution of the data for the EBM 1: 100 000 scale.The topological relations of the line and area features were ensured. Administrative Units includes: AdministrativeBoundary a line layer containing the demarcations outlining administrative units. AdministrativeUnit_1 a polygon layer containing the national administrative hierarchy, Level 1 (republic). AdministrativeUnit_2 a polygon layer containing the national administrative hierarchy, Level 2 (municipalities). Residence of Authority a point layer containing the administrative centres of all administrative levels. BasicGeometry includes: EBM_A a polygon layer containing administrative areas. Here are the basic components on which administrative units of all hierarchical levels, as well as all statistical layers, are composed. EBM_P a point layer meant for labelling purposes. Label points are located within the main area of the administrative units on lowest level. StatisticalUnits includes: LAU a polygon layer = Local Administrative Unit. NUTS_1 a polygon layer = Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (whole country) NUTS_2 a polygon layer NUTS_3 a polygon layer = Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (capital area, rural areas) Tables in EBM: CountryCodes = all countries have unique country codes (icc). EBM_CHR = country codes of those countries where the language is used in alphabetical order delimited by #. EBM_coAdministered = Relationship between administrative unit and its co-administering administrative units on the same hierarchical level. A few countries have special areas with shared administrative units. EBM_ISN = designations of administrative hierarchical levels EBM_NAM = names of administrative units EBM_NUTS = Relationship between the SHN codes of administrative units on lowest national administrative level and corresponding statistical codes.
The high resolution imperviousness products capture the percentage and change of soil sealing. Built-up areas are characterized by the substitution of the original (semi-) natural land cover or water surface with an artificial, often impervious cover. These artificial surfaces are usually maintained over long periods of time. A series of high resolution imperviousness datasets (for the 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015 reference years) with all artificially sealed areas was produced using automatic derivation based on calibrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This series of imperviousness layers constitutes the main status layers. They are per-pixel estimates of impermeable cover of soil (soil sealing) and are mapped as the degree of imperviousness (0-100%). Imperviousness change layers were produced as a difference between the reference years (2006-2009, 2009-2012, 2012-2015 and additionally 2006-2012, to fully match the CORINE Land Cover production cycle) and are presented 1) as degree of imperviousness change (-100% -- +100%), in 20m and 100m pixel size, and 2) a classified (categorical) 20m change product. The production of the High Resolution Imperviousness products was coordinated by the European Environment Agency in the frame of the EU Copernicus programme. A verification of the Imperviousness layer was performed by the National Land Survey of Iceland during autumn of 2018 and the data and resulting report are made available on the NLSI websites.
The high resolution forest product consists of three types of (status) products and additional change products. The status products are available for the 2012 and 2015 reference years: 1. Tree cover density providing level of tree cover density in a range from 0-100% 2. Dominant leaf type providing information on the dominant leaf type: broadleaved or coniferous 3. A Forest type product. The forest type product allows to get as close as possible to the FAO forest definition. In its original (20m) resolution it consists of two products: 1) a dominant leaf type product that has a MMU of 0.5 ha, as well as a 30% tree cover density threshold applied, and 2) a support layer that maps, based on the dominant leaf type product, trees under agricultural use and in urban context (derived from CLC and high resolution imperviousness 2009 data). For the final 100m product trees under agricultural use and urban context from the support layer are removed. The high resolution forest change products comprise a simple tree cover density change product for 2012-2015 (% increase or decrease of real tree cover density changes). A verification of the Dominant Leaf Type layer was performed by the National Land Survey of Iceland during autumn of 2018 and the data and resulting report are made available on the NLSI websites.
The main high resolution grassland product is the Grassland layer, a grassland/non-grassland mask for the EEA39 area. This grassy and non-woody vegetation baseline product includes all kinds of grasslands: managed grassland, semi-natural grassland and natural grassy vegetation. It is a binary status layer mapping grassland and all non-grassland areas in 20m and (aggregated) 100m pixel size. Two additional (expert) products complete the high resolution grassland product: the Ploughing Indicator (PLOUGH) and the Grassland Vegetation Probability Index (GRAVPI). While the PLOUGH concentrates on historic land cover features with the aim to indicate ploughing activities in preceding years, the GRAVPI provides a measure of classification reliability. GRAVPI is a 20m pixel size product, mapping on a range of 1-100 the class probability. PLOUGH is a 20m pixel size additional product, mapping from 1-6 the number of years since the last indication of ploughing. A verification of the Grassland layer was performed by the National Land Survey of Iceland during autumn of 2018 and the data and resulting report are made available on the NLSI websites.
ELF Transport Networks (TN) Iceland is one of 12 themes in the European Location Project (ELF). The purpose of ELF is to create harmonised cross-border, cross-theme and cross-resolution pan-European reference data from national contributions. The goal is to provide INSPIRE-compliant data for Europe. A description of the ELF (European Location Project) is here: http://www.elfproject.eu/content/overview. The transport layer contains both line and polygons. The linelayer shows the transport network but the polygon layer contains the airports. Encoding: INSPIRE version 4
Íslandi er skipt upp í loftgæðasvæði og bera heilbrigðiseftirlit viðkomandi svæða ábyrgð á því að ekki sé farið yfir mörk þar, og áætlunum um hvernig bregðast á við ef farið er yfir mörk.
ELF Elevation (EL) Iceland is one of 12 themes in the European Location Project (ELF). The purpose of ELF is to create harmonised cross-border, cross-theme and cross-resolution pan-European reference data from national contributions. The goal is to provide INSPIRE-compliant data for Europe. A description of the ELF (European Location Project) is here: http://www.elfproject.eu/content/overview Encoding: INSPIRE version 4
Hydrography (HY) Iceland is one of 12 themes in the European Location Project (ELF). The purpose of ELF is to create harmonised cross-border, cross-theme and cross-resolution pan-European reference data from national contributions. The goal is to provide INSPIRE-compliant data for Europe. A description of the ELF (European Location Project) is here: http://www.elfproject.eu/content/overview Encoding: INSPIRE version 4